official_name = Iaşi
image_caption = The Palace of Culture
image_shield = Roiasi.gif
mapsize = 200px
map_caption = Location of Iaşi within
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = ROU
subdivision_type1 = County
subdivision_type2 = Status
leader_title = Mayor
Social Democrat Party (Romania)
established_title = Founded
established_date = 1408 (first official record)
area_total_km2 = 93.9
area_metro_km2 = 787.8
population_as_of = July 01, 2007 [ [http://www.insse.ro/cms/rw/resource/populatia_stab_1%20iulie2007.htm Population of Romania as of
July 01, 2007] ]
settlement_type = City
population_total = 315,214
population_metro = 402,786
population_density_km2 = 3357
timezone = EET
utc_offset = +2
timezone_DST = EEST
utc_offset_DST = +3
latd = 47
latm = 09
lats = 44
latNS = N
longd = 27
longm = 35
longs = 20
longEW = E
postal_code_type = Postal Code
postal_code = 700xxx
area_code = +40 x32
blank_name = Car Plates
blank_info = IS
website = [http://www.primaria-iasi.ro/ www.primaria-iasi.ro]
Iaşi (pronunciation in Romanian: IPA|/jaʃʲ/), or Jassy, is a city and municipality in north-eastern
Romania. The city was the capital of Moldaviafrom the 16th century until 1861 and of Romania (Romanian Kingdom) between 1916–1918 during World War I.
The second largest Romanian city, Iaşi is the economic, cultural and academic centre of the Romanian region of Moldavia. The city has the oldest Romanian university and accommodates an annual count of over 60,000 students in 5 public and 3 private universities. It is home to more than 50 churches and hosts 5 cultural centres: British, French, German,
Latin American & Caribbeanand Hellenic. Cultural life gravitates around the National Theater (the oldest in Romania), the Opera House, the Iaşi State Philarmonic, the Tătăraşi Atheneum, a famous Botanical Garden (the oldest and largest in Romania), the Central University Library (the oldest in Romania), an array of museums and memorial houses, an independent theater and several student organizations.
The city is historically referred to as Jassy; ( _hu. Jászvásár, _el. Ιάσιο, Romany: "Yashi"; _yi. יאס "Yas").
Scholars have different theories on the origin of the name "Iaşi". Some argue that the name originates with the Sarmatian tribe
Jazyges(of Iranian origin), one mentioned by Ovidas "Ipse vides onerata ferox ut ducata Iasyx/ Per media Istri plaustra bubulcus aquas" and ""Jazyges et Colchi Metereaque turba Getaque/ Danubii mediis vix prohibentur aquis".
A nowadays lost inscription on a Roman milestone [Museum Documentation Center Croatia, [http://www.mdc.hr/osijek/eng/10-zavicaj/10-01zavicaj.html A Tractate on the Roman Milestone Discovered near Osijek] ] found near
Osijek, Croatiaby Matija Petar Katančićin the 18th century, mentions the existence of a "Jassiorum municipium". [Columbia University, [http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/Graesse/orblatij.html#Jassium Orbis Latinus - entry for Jassium] ]
Another explanation is that the name originated from the Iranian Alanic tribe of Jassi. The Hungarian name of the city ("Jászvásár") literally means "Jassic Market"; the antiquated Romanian name, "Târgul Ieşilor" (and the once-favoured "Iaşii"), may indicate the same meaning.
The city is first mentioned in a 1408 document by Moldavian Prince (
Voivode) Alexandru cel Bun. However, as buildings older than 1408 existed and still exist (for example the Armenian Church originally believed to be built in 1395; the present building is from the modern era), it is believed that the city existed long before its first mentioning.
Around 1564, Prince
Alexandru Lăpuşneanumoved the Moldavian capital from Suceavato Iaşi. Between 1561 and 1563, a school and a Lutheran church were founded by the Greek adventurer Prince, Ioan Iacob Heraclid. In 1640, Vasile Lupuestablished the first school in which the mother-tongue replaced Greek, and set up a printing press in the Byzantine Trei Ierarhi Church("Church of the Three Hierarchs"; built 1635–39). In 1643, the first volume ever printed in Moldaviawas issued in Iaşi.
Peace of Iaşi, the sixth Russo-Turkish War was brought to a close in 1792. A Greek revolutionary maneuver and occupation under Alexander Ypsilanti and the Filiki Eteria(1821, at the beginning of the Greek War of Independence) led to the storming of the city by the Turks in 1822. In 1844 there was a severe conflagration.
Between 1565 and 1859, the city was the capital of Moldavia; then, between 1859 and 1862, both Iaşi and
Bucharestwere de-facto capitals of the "United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia" (the Danubian Principalities). In 1862, when the union of the two principalities was recognized under the name of "Romania", the national capital was established in Bucharest. For the loss caused to the city in 1861 by the removal of the seat of government to Bucharest the constituent assembly voted 148,150 lei to be paid in ten annual instalments, but no payment was ever made.
Iaşi's primitive houses of timber and plaster were mostly swept away after 1860, when brick or stone came into general use, and better streets were cut through the network of narrow, unsanitary lanes.
World War I, Iaşi was the capital of a severely reduced Romania for two years, following the Central Powers' occupation of Bucharest on December 6 1916. The capital was returned to Bucharest after the defeat of Imperial Germanyand its allies in November 1918.
In May 1944, Iaşi became the scene of ferocious fighting between Romanian-German forces and the advancing Soviet
Red Armyand the city was partially destroyed. The elite German Panzergrenadier Division "Großdeutschland" won an impressive defensive victory at the Battle of Târgul Frumos, a location near Iaşi. The battle was the object of several NATOstudies during the Cold War. By July, Iaşi had been taken by Soviet forces.
Jewish History of Iaşi
Iaşi also figures prominently in
Jewish history. Records of Jews exist from the 16th century, and by mid-19th century, owing to widespread Russian Jewish and Galician Jewish immigrationinto Moldavia, the city was at least one-third Jewish. In 1855, it was the home of the first-ever Yiddish-language newspaper, "Korot Haitim", and, in 1876, the site of what was arguably the first-ever professional Yiddish theaterperformance ("See Abraham Goldfaden").
The words of
HaTikvah, the national anthem of Israel, were written in Iasi by Naphtali Herz Imber.
By 1930 there were over 30,000 Jews and over 127
synagogues. After World War II, it played a prominent part in the revival of Yiddish culture in Romania: from 1949 to 1964, Iaşi was home to a second company of the State Jewish Theater.
Today, Iaşi has a dwindling Jewish population of ca. 300 to 600 members, and one working synagogue which dates from the 1600s. There is also a Jewish community center serving "kosher" meals from a small cantina.
Outside of the city on top of a hill there is a large Jewish Cemetery which has graves dating from the late 1800s; burial records date from 1915 to the present day and are kept in the community center.
The Iaşi Pogrom
During the early part of World War II, Iaşi was the site of a
pogromwhich was the largest massacre of Jews in Romania. During the war, while the full scale of the Holocaustremained generally unknown to the Allied Powers, the Iaşi pogromstood as one of the known, well-documented examples of Axis brutality toward the Jews.
The pogrom began as a diversionary tactic. Due to its proximity to the Soviet border, the Romanian government accused the city's Jewish population of aiding the "Bolsheviks," and promoted rumors among the general population that the Jews were anti-Romanian. The pretext for the pogrom included a minor Soviet air attack on the city on June 26, 1941, two days after Romanian and Nazi forces invaded the Soviet Union. After a second air attack two days later, the 14th Infantry Division, led by General Stavrescu declared its mission of eradicating "those who are aiding the enemy," which meant the Jewish population. In a telegram, Staverscu wrote that the Russian aviators "had accomplices among the Judeo-communist suspects of Iaşi." [Braham, Randolph "The destruction of Romanian and Ukrainian Jews During the Antonescu Era" Pages 63-85]
The pogrom lasted from
June 29to July 6, 1941, and approximately 14,000 people, or half the Jewish population, was massacred either in the pogrom itself (around 2,000 Jews), or in its aftermath (around 12,000 Jews), and the rest were deported. Under express orders from military dictator and German ally Ion Antonescu, the city was to be "cleansed" of its Jewish population. Orders also specified that Section Two of the General Headquarters of the Romanian Armyand the Special Intelligence Service (SIS) of Romania were to spread rumors of Jewish treachery in the press, including ones that Jews were guiding Soviet military aircraftby placing lights in their houses' chimneys. [United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, [http://www.ushmm.org/research/center/presentations/programs/presentations/2005-03-10/pdf/english/chapter_05.pdf] ]
A systematic massacre by the Iaşi police, Romanian and German soldiers, and a portion of the citizens of Iaşi followed; the remaining Jewish population was loaded onto overcrowded, sealed "death trains" that drove slowly back and forth across the country in the hot summer weather until most of their passengers were killed by
hyperthermia, thirst, or infection and bleeding.
Six Romanians of Iaşi are credited with saving around one hundred Jews (see
Righteous Among the Nations), but, according to the official Romanian report on the subject, the vast majority of the population of the city did nothing to intervene, and a certain portion joined in the killing.
The city of Iaşi lies on the
Bahlui River, a tributary of the Jijia (tributary of the Prut). The surrounding country is one of uplands and woods, featuring the monasteries of Cetăţuia, Frumoasa, Galata (with nearby mineral springs), and the dendrologic park of Repedea. Iaşi itself stands amid vineyards and gardens, partly on two hills, partly in the in-between valley.It is a common belief that Iaşi is built on seven hills (coline in Romanian): Cetăţuia, Galata, Copou-Aurora, Bucium-Păun, Şorogari, Repedea and Breazu, thus triggering comparisons with Rome, "la città dei sette colli" (The city of the seven hills). The city is about to become a metropolitan area, expanding its territory with 10 other communities surrounding the city.
* 1859: 50,000
* 1900: 78,000 (the second-largest city in Romania)
* 1930: 102,872
* 1948: 96,075
* 1966: 161,023
* 1977: 265,002
* 1992: 344,425 (the third-largest city)
* 2002: 320,888 (the second-largest city)
* 2004: 317,812 (as of July 1st, 2004, the second-largest city) [ [http://www.insse.ro/cms/rw/resource/romania_in_cifre.pdf Romania in cifre (see page 9)] ]
* 2006: 306,000 (the third-largest city) [http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/statistici/comunicate/alte/Comunicat%20ziua%20populatiei%202006%20doc.pdf]
* 2007 (July 1st): 315,214 (second largest city)cite web |url=http://www.insse.ro/cms/rw/resource/populatia%20la%201%20iulie.htm?download=true |title= Populatia la 1 iulie 2007 |publisher= National Institute of Statistics | language = Romanian| date= 2007-07-01 |accessdate= 2008-04-30]
Iaşi is an outstanding educational center, and preserves some beautiful pieces of architecture, such as the Trei Ierarhi Church and the neo-Gothic Palace of Culture (the site of four museums - of History, of Technology, of Ethnography, and of Art). Many buildings in the old city center were demolished during the Communist regime, with a few Soviet-style blocks of flats built instead.
Iaşi (specifically the Metropolitan Cathedral) is the seat of the Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan of Moldavia, and of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Iaşi. There are currently almost 10,000 Roman Catholics living in Iaşi. [ [http://recensamant.referinte.transindex.ro/?pg=3&id=1494 Recensământ 2002 ] ] There is a debate between historians as to whether or not the Catholics are originally of Romanian or Hungarian descent. [ [http://paxromana.org/node/258 Mother, teacher, nurse. The role of women in society and church according to Hungarian-speaking young Catholics in Romania | Pax Romana ICMICA/MIIC ] ] The city houses more than 40 churches. The oldest one is "Saint Nicholas", dating from the reign of
Stephen the Great(1457–1504); perhaps the finest, however, are the 17th century older metropolitan church, "Saint Spiridion" and "Trei Ierarhi", the last a curious example of Byzantine art, erected in 1635–1639 by Vasile Lupu, and adorned with countless gilded carvings on its outer walls and twin towers. Other beautiful churches, some surrounded by big walls, are: "Galata" (1581), "Golia", "St. Sava", "Barnovschi", "Bărboi" (17th century), "Cetăţuia" (the end of the 17th century) and "Frumoasa" (18th century).
Gardens and parks
One of the most important cultural center, Iaşi has many theaters, museums, and the like.
The [http://teatrulnational.iasinet.ro "Vasile Alecsandri" National Theater] , opened in 1837 is the oldest National Theatre in Romania. The building, designed according to the plans of the Viennese architects
Hermann Helmerand Ferdinand Fellnerwas built between 1894–1896, and also hosts starting 1956 the [http://www.opera-iasi.ro/versiunea%201%20engleza/000.html National Romanian Opera Iaşi] .
Iasi is home to
* [http://www.filarmonicais.ro/en/index.php?id_pagina=9 Iaşi State Philarmonic]
* [http://www.luceafarul-theatre.ro "Luceafărul" Theater for children and youth]
Four museums are located in the Palace of Culture, one of the largest buildings of Romania. Construction was carried out between the years 1906–1925 on the old ruins of the Royal Court of
Moldaviaand it is designed in flamboyant neo-Gothicstyle. The palace counts 298 rooms and has a total room surface of about 36 000 m².
*The Art Museum has the largest art collection in Romania, with more than 8,000 paintings, out of which 1,000 belong to the national and universal patrimony
*The Moldavian History Museum offers more than 35,000 objects from various fields: archaeology, numismatics, decorative art, ancient books, documents
*The Ethnographic Museum of Moldavia owns more than 11,000 objects depicting the Romanian advance through the ages
*The Museum of Science and Technology offers many musical devices
Foreign culture centres
*French Cultural Centre
*German Cultural Centre
*British Cultural Centre
*Latin American and Caribbean Cultural Centre
*Hellenic Cultural Centre
Iasi is an important economic centre in Romania.It has an active trade in metals, medical drugs (antibiotics), textiles and clothing, banking, wine, preserved meat.The city has also become an important IT sector centre, with many software companies and two universities that provide high quality graduate engineers.Iasi is also an important regional commercial centre.
Education and science
thumb|200px|right| Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi, sector A.
A society of
physicians and natural historians has existed in Iaşi since the early part of the 19th century, and a number of periodicals are published. One of the oldest medical universities in Romania, founded in 1879, is in Iaşi. It is now known as the "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy.
The first Technical High Education structure in Romanian language was established in the autumn of 1813, when engineer
Gheorghe Asachilaid the foundations of a class of engineers, its activities taking place within the Greek Academy of Iaşi.
After 1813, other moments marked the development of higher education in Romanian, regarding both
humanitiesand the technical science. In 1835, " Academia Mihăileană" was founded in Iaşi by Prince Mihail Sturdza.
Iaşi is home to the oldest Romanian university (
University of Iaşi), opened by (and nowadays named after) Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuzain 1860. The city is host to five universities, and is widely regarded as the cultural "heart" of the "Old Kingdom" (that is Moldavia, Wallachia, and Dobruja- the three regions comprising Romania until 1918).
In 1937, the two
applied sciencesections of the university of Iaşi became departments of the newly created Gheorghe Asachi Polytechnic School; In the period before and after World War II, the later (renamed "Polytechnic Institute" in 1948) extended its domain of activity, especially in the field of engineering, and became adopted a Technical University in 1993.
"Al. I. Cuza" University
*"Gh. Asachi" Technical University
*"Gr. T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy
*"G. Enescu" University of Arts
*"I. Ionescu de la Brad" University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
Besides the universities, there are schools of art and music. The University's Central Library, where the chief records of Romanian history are preserved, is the oldest and the second largest in Romania.
Iaşi International Airport(IAS), located 8 km to the east of the city centre, is the busiest airport in Romanian region of Moldavia.
The Iaşi Central Rail Station, located about 1.5 km to the city centre, is situated on the CFR-Romanian Railways Main Line 600 (
Bucharest- Romanian Eastern Border) and on the Line 606 (Iaşi - Paşcani). CFR provides direct rail connections to all the major Romanian cities and to Chişinău. The rail station is very well connected to all the parts of the city by the trams, and buses of the local public transport company, RATC.The city is also served by Nicolina International Rail Station.
Iaşi is connected to European route E85/E583 with Bucharest through a partially four lane express road. It is also planned a East-West freeway connection Romanian Motorway A4 to Romanian Motorway A3 (also known as "Transylvania Motorway").The Iaşi Coach Station is used by several private transport companies to provide coach connections from Iaşi to a large number of locations from all over the country.
RATP, the local public transport company, runs an extensive public transport network within the city using
trams and buses.
List of people from Iaşi"
*flagicon|United States Atlanta,
*flagicon|Italy Padua, Italy.
Quebec City, Canada.
Torrita Tiberina, Italy.
Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
*flagicon|People's Republic of China
*National Institute of Statistics: http://www.insse.ro
* [http://www.primaria-iasi.ro/ Iasi City Hall website]
*ro icon [http://is.politiaromana.ro Official site of the Iaşi police inspectorate]
* [http://www.map2web.cc/map4/index.php?fpnr=273&lang=en Street Map of Iaşi, as comissioned by the City Hall]
* [http://www.targuldecase.ro/harta-iasi.html Map of Iaşi Metropolitan Area (free interactive map with street index, points of interest, and geographic location hyper-linking)]
* [http://www.uaic.ro Al. I. Cuza University of Iaşi official site]
* [http://www.tuiasi.ro Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iaşi official site]
* [http://www.umfiasi.ro/surse_eng/index.htm Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iaşi official site]
* [http://www.arteiasi.ro/en/index.htm G. Enescu University of Arts of Iaşi official site]
* [http://www.univagro-iasi.ro/index.php?lang=en&pagina=pagini/home.html I. Ionescu de la Brad University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Iaşi official site]
* [http://www.romanianplaces.ro Iaşi - Come. See. Enjoy!]
* [http://www.geocities.com/romaniancoins/iasi/indexiasi Iaşi - Cetatea de scaun - shows in plenty of large pictures the city of Iaşi and its surroundings]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Iaşi — Roumanie Judeţ de Iaşi Iaşi Statut : Chef lieu … Wikipédia en Français
Iasi — Iaşi … Deutsch Wikipedia
Iași — Jassy Jászvásár … Deutsch Wikipedia
Iași — Iași … Wikipédia en Français
IASI — ou JASSY Troisième ville de Roumanie (342 994 hab. en 1992), et capitale de la Moldavie malgré une situation devenue excentrique depuis que la frontière russe longe le Prut à treize kilomètres de là. Iasi est une ville de steppe dans une région… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Iaşi — puede referirse a: El distrito rumano de Iaşi, en la región de Región de Moldavia (Rumania); La ciudad rumana de Iaşi, capital del distrito homónimo. Esta página de desambiguación cataloga artículos relacionados con el mismo título. Si llegaste… … Wikipedia Español
Iaşi — [ jaʃj], Stadt in Rumänien, Jassy … Universal-Lexikon
-iasi — (o asi). (med.) Suff., aggiunto di solito al nome del parassita agente patogeno, che indica malattie parassitarie, come in amebiasi … Enciclopedia Italiana
Iaşi — [yäsh, yä′shē] city in NE Romania: pop. 338,000 … English World dictionary
Iasi — /yahsh, yah shee/, n. Rumanian name of Jassy. * * * German Jassy City (pop., 2002: 321,580), northeastern Romania. Located west of the border with Moldova and northeast of Bucharest, it is on the Bahlui River. It was settled as early as the 7th… … Universalium