Avvakum


Avvakum

Avvakum Petrov (Kondratiev) ( _ru. Аввакум Петров (Кондратьев)) (November 20, 1620 or 1621 - April 14, 1682) was a Russian protopope of Kazan Cathedral on Red Square who led the opposition to Patriarch Nikon's reforms of the Russian Orthodox Church. His autobiography and letters to the tsar, Boyarynya Morozova and other Old Believers are considered masterpieces of 17th-century Russian literature.

Starting in 1652 Nikon, as Patriarch of the Russian Church, initiated a wide range of reforms in Russian liturgy and theology. These reforms were mostly intended to bring the Russian Church into line with the other Orthodox Churches of Eastern Europe and Middle East. Avvakum and others strongly rejected these changes. They saw them as a corruption of the Russian Church, which they considered to be the "true" Church of God. The other Churches were more closely related to Constantinople in their liturgies and Avvakum argued that Constantinople fell to the Turks because of these heretical beliefs and practices.

For his opposition to the reforms, Avvakum was repeatedly imprisoned and finally burned at the stake in Pustozyorsk, where he had been exiled by the government. The spot where he was burned is now marked by an ornate wooden cross. Groups rejecting the changes continued, however, and they came to be referred to as Old Believers. Avvakum's colourful autobiography memorably recounts hardships of his imprisonment and exile to the Russian Far East, the story of his friendship and rupture with the Tsar Alexis, his practice of exorcising demons and devils, and his boundless admiration for nature and other works of God.

External links

* [http://www.imwerden.de/pdf/avvakum_zhitie.pdf "Life of Avvakum"] , academic edition with commentary
* [http://www.imwerden.de/pdf/avvakum_zhitie_i_dr_paris.pdf Avvakum's letters to the Tzar and Old Believers]
* [http://www.swentelomania.be/avvakum/frames.html Parallel text version of Life of Avvakum]
* [http://lesserg4mini.cs.umass.edu/~lesser/Priscilla_Academic/Articles.html English and Russian Articles on Avvakum by P. Hunt]


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