Hepatitis D


Hepatitis D
Hepatitis D
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Unassigned
Genus: Deltavirus
Species: Hepatitis delta virus
Hepatitis D
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 B17.0, B18.0
ICD-9 070.31
MeSH D003699

Hepatitis D, also referred to as hepatitis D virus (HDV) and classified as Hepatitis delta virus, is a disease caused by a small circular enveloped RNA virus. It is one of five known hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E. HDV is considered to be a subviral satellite because it can propagate only in the presence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV).[1] Transmission of HDV can occur either via simultaneous infection with HBV (coinfection) or superimposed on chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis B carrier state (superinfection).

Both superinfection and coinfection with HDV results in more severe complications compared to infection with HBV alone. These complications include a greater likelihood of experiencing liver failure in acute infections and a rapid progression to liver cirrhosis, with an increased chance of developing liver cancer in chronic infections.[2] In combination with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D has the highest mortality rate of all the hepatitis infections of 20%.

Contents

Virology

History

Hepatitis D virus was first reported in the mid-1970s, as a nuclear antigen in patients infected with HBV who had severe liver disease [3] This nuclear antigen was then thought to be a hepatitis B antigen and was called the delta antigen. Subsequent experiments in chimpanzees showed that the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) was a structural part of a pathogen that required HBV infection to replicate[4] The entire virus was cloned and sequenced in 1986, and obtained its own genus deltavirus [5][6]

Structure and Genome

Hepatitis delta virus delta antigen
PDB 1a92 EBI.jpg
oligomerization domain of hepatitis delta antigen
Identifiers
Symbol HDV_ag
Pfam PF01517
InterPro IPR002506
SCOP 1a92

The HDV is a small, spherical virus with a 36 nm diameter. It has an outer coat containing three HBV envelope proteins (called large, medium, and small hepatitis B surface antigens, and host lipids surrounding an inner nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid contains single-stranded, circular RNA of 1679 nucleotides and about 200 molecules of hepatitis D antigen (HDAg) for each genome. The central region of HDAg has been shown to bind RNA.[7] Several interactions are also mediated by a coiled-coil region at the N terminus of HDAg.[8] The hepatitis D circular genome is unique to animal viruses because of its high GC nucleotide content. The HDV genome exists as an enveloped negative sense, single-stranded, closed circular RNA nucleotide sequence is 70% self-complementary, allowing the genome to form a partially double stranded RNA structure that is described as rod-like.[9] With a genome of approximately 1700 nucleotides, HDV is the smallest "virus" known to infect animals. It has been proposed that HDV may have originated from a class of plant viruses called viroids.[10][11]

There are at least 8 genotypes of this virus (HDV-1 to HDV-8).[12]

Life Cycle

The receptor that HDV recognizes on human hepatocytes has not been identified; however it is thought to be the same as the HBV receptor because both viruses have the same outer coat.[13] HDV recognizes its receptor via the N-terminal domain of the large hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg.[14] Mapping by mutagenesis of this domain has shown that aminoacid residues 9-15 make up the receptor binding site.[15] After entering the hepatocyte, the virus is uncoated and the nucleocapsid translocated to the nucleus due to a signal in HDAg[16] Since the nucleocapsid does not contain an RNA polymerase to replicate the virus’ genome, the virus makes use of the cellular RNA polymerases Initially just RNA pol II,[17][18] now RNA polymerases I and III have also been shown to be involved in HDV replication[19] Normally RNA polymerase II utilizes DNA as a template and produces mRNA. Consequently, if HDV indeed utilizes RNA polymerase II during replication, it would be the only known pathogen capable of using a DNA-dependent polymerase as an RNA-dependent polymerase.

The RNA polymerases treat the RNA genome as double stranded DNA due to the folded rod-like structure it is in. Three forms of RNA are made; circular genomic RNA, circular complementary antigenomic RNA, and a linear polyadenylated antigenomic RNA, which is the mRNA containing the open reading frame for the HDAg. Synthesis of antigenomic RNA occurs in the nucleous, mediated by RNA Pol I, whereas synthesis of genomic RNA takes place in the nucleoplasm, mediated by RNA Pol II.[20] HDV RNA is synthesized first as linear RNA that contains many copies of the genome. The genomic and antigenomic RNA contain a sequence of 85 nucleotides that acts as a ribozyme, which self-cleaves the linear RNA into monomers. This monomers are then ligated to form circular RNA [21][22]

There are eight reported genotypes of HDV with unexplained variations in their geographical distribution and pathogenicity.

Delta antigens

A significant difference between viroids and HDV is that, while viroids produce no proteins, HDAg is the only protein known to be coded for by the HDV genome. It consist of two forms; a 27kDa large-HDAg, and a small-HDAg of 24kDa. The N-terminals of the two forms are identical, they differ by 19 more amino acids in the C-terminal of the large HDAg.[23] Both isoforms are produced from the same reading frame which contains an UAG stop codon at codon 196, which normally produces only the small-HDAg. However, editing by cellular enzyme adenosine deaminase-1 changes the stop codon to UCG, allowing the large-HDAg to be produced [23][24] Despite having 90% identical sequences, these two proteins play diverging roles during the course of an infection. HDAg-S is produced in the early stages of an infection and enters the nucleus and supports viral replication. HDAg-L, in contrast, is produced during the later stages of an infection, acts as an inhibitor of viral replication, and is required for assembly of viral particles.[25][26][27] Thus RNA editing by the cellular enzymes is critical to the virus’ life cycle because it regulates the balance between viral replication and virion assembly.

Transmission

The routes of transmission of hepatitis D are similar to those for hepatitis B. Infection is largely restricted to persons at high risk of hepatitis B infection, particularly injecting drug users and persons receiving clotting factor concentrates. Worldwide more than 15 million people are co-infected. HDV is rare in most developed countries, and is mostly associated with intravenous drug use. However, HDV is much more common in the immediate Mediterranean region, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and the northern part of South America.[28] In all, about 20 million people may be infected with HDV.[29]

See also

References

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External links

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