name = "Aphelocoma"
image_width = 275px
Florida Scrub-Jay, "Aphelocoma coerulescens"
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
genus = "Aphelocoma"
genus_authority = Cabanis, 1851
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = "
Aphelocoma californica" " Aphelocoma coerulescens" " Aphelocoma insularis" " Aphelocoma ultramarina" " Aphelocoma unicolor" and see text
passerine birds of the genus "Aphelocoma"ref label|etymology|A|Ainclude the scrub-jays and relatives. They are New Worldjays found in Mexico, western Central Americaand the western United States, with an outlying population in Florida. This genus belongs to the group of New World (or "blue") jays - possibly a distinct subfamily- which is not closely related to other jays, magpies or treepies (Ericson "et al", 2005 [Ericson, Per G. P.; Jansén, Anna-Lee; Johansson, Ulf S. & Ekman, Jan (2005): Inter-generic relationships of the crows, jays, magpies and allied groups (Aves: Corvidae) based on nucleotide sequence data. "Journal of Avian Biology" 36: 222-234. [http://www.nrm.se/download/18.4e32c81078a8d9249800021299/Corvidae%5B1%5D.pdf PDF fulltext] ] ). They live in open pine- oakforests, chaparral, and cloudforests.
Five species of "Aphelocoma" are generally recognized currently, since two taxa formerly treated as races of "A. coerulescens" were recently split off as separate species ("A. californica" and "A. insularis"); the 3 now separate species differ in color and bill size. They are believed to have evolved in the
Pleistocene, and the Floridan species is known to have been recognizably distinct and present in its current range for at least 2 million years (Emslie, 1996 [Emslie, Steven D. (1996): A fossil Scrub-Jay supports a recent systematic decision. "Condor" 98(4): 675-680. [http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v098n04/p0675-p0680.pdf PDF fulltext] ] ). Indeed, the inland and coastal populations of "A. californica" seem to constitute 2 distinct species too, as might different populations of the Mexican Jay (Rice "et al." 2003 Rice, Nathan H.; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique & Peterson, A. Townsend (2003): Ecological niche differentiation in the "Aphelocoma" jays: a phylogenetic perspective. "Biol. J. Linn. Soc." 80(3): 369–383. DOI|10.1046/j.1095-8312.2003.00242.x [http://www.ansp.org/research/biodiv/ornithology/pdf/Jay-phylogeny.pdf PDF fulltext] ] ).
Unicolored Jay, "Aphelocoma unicolor" – cloudforests of southern Mexico east to Honduras
Mexican Jayor Gray-breasted Jay, "Aphelocoma ultramarina" – Sierra Madre Orientaland Sierra Madre Occidentalmountains of Mexico, north to southeast Arizona, southwest New Mexicoand westernmost Texas, US.
Island Scrub-Jay, "Aphelocoma insularis" – Santa Cruz Islandoff southern California
Western Scrub-Jay, "Aphelocoma californica" – coastal western North Americafrom Washingtonto Baja California
** Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay, "Aphelocoma (californica) woodhouseii" - inland western North America, from
Oregonthrough Texasand south to central Mexico
Florida Scrub-Jay, "Aphelocoma coerulescens" – Florida mtDNA NADH dehydrogenase subunit2 sequence data (Rice "et al." 2003 ) is unable to properly resolve the relationships of the species. Judging from New Wold jay biogeography, the Unicolored or Mexican Jays might represent the most basal lineage; morphology would tentatively lean towards the latter which retains more of the group's color patterns, while the available molecular data allows no robust conclusions whatsoever. In any case, the data of Rice "et al." (2003) suggests - albeit also with very low confidence - that the Mexican Jay comprises 2 clades which might constitute different species. However, far too few individuals have been sampled to say anything definite on that matter, except that the lineages - if they indeed exist - do not correspond to the geographical pattern of intraspecific variation (see species article for more).
On the other hand, it is somewhat more likely that the Western Scrub-Jay is made up of 2 species. These would be separated by the
Great Basin, with the Pacific coastal lineage ("California" Scrub-Jay) and the Island Scrub-Jay, as well as the inland lineage ("Woodhouse's" Scrub-Jay) and the Florida Scrub-Jay being sister species. This treatment fails to address the problem of birds from inland southern Mexico. What is known about the paleogeographyof North America supports these findings, but they must be considered preliminary pending analysis of much more data (Rice "et al." 2003 ). Nonetheless, it is actually "because" the molecular diversity pattern is so badly resolved that it supports the view that rapid Late Plioceneradiation of the North American Scrub-Jays led to the present diversity.
"Aphelocoma" jays are slightly larger than the
Blue Jayand differ in having a longer tail, slightly shorter, more rounded wings, and no crest on the head. The top of the head, nape, and sides of the head are a rich deep blue. Some species have a white stripe above the eye and dark ear coverts. The breast is also white or grey-white and the back is a grey-brown contrasting with the bright blue tail and wings in most species. One species, Unicolored Jay, is blue all over, superficially similar to the Pinyon Jayfrom much further north. The bill, legs, and feet are black.
Food is taken both on the ground and in trees.
Acorns and pine nuts are the most important foods, making up the great bulk of the diet, with grain, berries and other fruits making up the rest of the vegetable diet. Many insects and other invertebrates are also taken, and eggs and nestlings, small frogs, mice and reptiles.
Wild "Aphelocoma" jays are frequent visitors at campsites and picnics and have frequently learned to eat from the hands of people where they have become accustomed to being fed.
The nest is in a tree or a bush, sometimes quite low down. The nests are compact and lined with hair and fine roots with an outer diameter of about 30cm to 60cm. Usually 2 to 4 eggs are laid and incubated over 14 to 16 days. There are two main variations of egg shell color: green with olive markings or a paler background of grayish-white to green with red-brown markings. The Florida Scrub-Jay and the Mexican Jay both have
cooperative breedingsystems involving several 'helpers' at each nest, usually siblings of the main pair.
"Aphelocoma" jays are quite vocal and have a huge range of sounds and calls; common calls include a "cheek, cheek, cheek" and a guttural churring "krr'r'r'r'r". "Aphelocoma" jays are also, like all other jays, often quite aggressive at feeding areas, and sometimes regarded as a nuisance.
Etymology: "Aphelocoma", from Latinized Ancient Greek"aphelo-", "soft" (Ancient Greek: apalos, απαλός) + Latin "coma" "hair", in reference to the smooth plumage of birds of this genus compared to other corvids.
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