- Man Singh I of Amber
Raja Shri Man Singh Ji Saheb (Man Singh I) (May 9, 1540- July 6,1614) was the
KacchwahaRajah Saheb of Amber, a state later known as Jaipur. He was a trusted general of the Mughal emperor Akbar, who included him among the Navratnas, or the nine gems of the royal court [ [http://www.mapsofindia.com/who-is-who/history/raja-man-singh.html Raja Man Singh Biography] India's who's who, www.mapsofindia.com.] . However, he was a devotee of Shri Krishna, and not an adherent of Akbar's religion, Din-i-Ilahi.
He was the son of Rani Sa Bhagawati Ji Sahiba at Amber, his father was
Raja Bhagwant Dasof Amber. Raja Bharmal, the first Rajputruler to marry his daughter to a Mughal, was his grandfather. Initially known as "Kunwar" (prince), Man Singh received the title of "Mirza Raja" and the "mansab" (rank) of 5000 after the death of his father on December 10, 1589 from Akbar[Sarkar, Jadunath (1984, reprint 1994). "A History of Jaipur", New Delhi: Orient Longman ISBN 81 250 0333 9, p.74] . 0n August 26, 1605, Man Singh became a mansabdarof 7,000, i.e., a commander of 7,000 cavalry in the Mughal forces, which was the maximum command for anyone other than a son of the Mughal emperor and the guardian of Khusrau, the eldest son of Jahangir [Sarkar, Jadunath (1984, reprint 1994). "A History of Jaipur", New Delhi: Orient Longman ISBN 81 250 0333 9, p.86] . Akbar called him "Farzand" (son). He fought many important campaigns for Akbar. Kunwar Man Singh led the Mughal army in the well-known battle of Haldighatifought in 1576 between the Mughal Empire and Maharana Pratap[Beveridge H. (tr.) (1939, Reprint 2000). "The Akbarnama of Abu´l Fazl", Vol. III, Kolkata: The Asiatic Society, ISBN 81 7236 094 0, p.244] .
Conflict with Rana Pratap
Man Singh was sent by Akbar to persuade
Rana Pratapto make a treaty with Akbar and accept Mughal sovereignty. But Rana Pratap, as a grandson of Rana Sanga, considered the Mughals invaders and intruders on Indian territory; he declined to accept Akbar's sovereignty. The great grandfather of Man Singh, Raja Prithviraj, was married to Rana Sanga's niece (Rana Raimal's daughter). Thus Rana Pratap was his relative.
On the day of their meeting Rana Pratap invited Man Singh for dinner. Rana Pratap deliberately avoided attending the dinner in person and sent his son "Kunwar" Amar Singh to dine with "Kunwar" Man Singh (as a custom Rajput men are called "Kunwar" in the life time of their father). The attitude of other Rajput nobles was also discouraging. They were secretly making mockery of Man Singh as his aunt Hira kunwar or Jodhabai was married to Akbar. Man Singh took this as an insult to
Akbarand himself. He knew Rana Pratap was making an excuse to avoid him. He refused to dine with Amar Singh. He remarked, "I will come again and then will have a dinner". Understanding the hidden meaning a noble of Pratap remarked "well, don't forget to bring your uncle Akbar". This laid the foundation of war between the Mughals and Rana Pratap, who already had many decades of rivalry and enmity.
Appointed by Akbar to lead the Mughal Army against Rana Pratap, Kunwar Man Singh started from
Ajmeron 3rd April 1576. A gruesome battle was fought on June 18, 1576at Haldi Ghati. Rana Pratap personally attacked Man Singh, who defended himself by ducking. Man Singh's " Mahout" (the driver of his elephant) was killed. Rana Pratap's famous warhorse"Chetak" was mortally wounded. Rana Pratap, himself, amazingly survived this battle. A nobleman, Jhala Man Singh, who pretended to be Rana Pratap, was killed by the Mughal forces. Jhala Man Singh put the helmet of Rana Pratap on his head, though he knew he would be killed soon by doing this. Ultimately, the Mughal army won the battle. The next day Man Singh advanced and captured Gogunda, the seat of Pratap's coronation. But the geographical situation of Mewarwas such that Rana Pratap could hide between hills. He exploited this and began guerrilla warfare. Ultimately Pratap was able to liberate all of Mewar except the fort of Chittor. Despite his success Akbarwas not happy with Man Singh, and stopped conversing with him for some time. Perhaps he thought Man Singh was responsible for Pratap's escape from the battlefield. Conspirators also fed this to his ears, but Akbar's doubts cleared when he visited Ajmer's shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishtithe following year.
In the Battle of Haldighati, despite exaggerated figures, it is estimated that Rana Pratap had 3,000 horsemen, some elephants and the same number of
Bhilwarriors under Rao Poonjaor Rana Poonja. A small artillery unit was also with him under Hakim Khan Sur. The force was divided into five wings. Advance wing was under Hakim Khan Sur, Bhim Singh Dodiya, and Ramdas Rathore. The right wing was under Bhamashahand Ramshah Tanwar. The left wing was under Jhala Man Singh. Rana Pratap was in the centre. Behind him was Rao Poonjawith his Bhilwarriors.
The Mughal army had 10,000 horsemen, some elephants and infantry. Among the horsemen 4,000 were
KachwahaRajput warriors. One thousand other Hindu warriors and rest were Uzbeks, Turks, Kazzakhs, Saiyads and other Muslims. This force divided into five wings. There were two advance wings. The first was under Sayyad Hashim Barah Jagganath Kachwaha and Asaf Ali Khan. The second advance troop was under Madho Singh Kachwaha. Behind this was Man Singh. To his right was Mulla Kazikhan Badkhsi and to left were Sayyads of Barah. At first Rana Pratap attacked and scattered the advance and left wings of the Mughal army. Jagnnath Kachwaha killed Ramshah Tanwar. Rajput warriors of both sides engaged in fierce battle. The Mughal army could not distinguish between friend and foe and killed Rajputs of both sides. The Mughal army surrounded Rana Pratap; so to save his life Jhala Man put the Rana's helmet on his head and died in his place. This provided Rana Pratap a chance to escape. After this, Rana's army dispersed. The Mughal Army, expecting another attack, remained vigilant all night. Only in the morning were they able to judge their success. Almost half of Rana's army was finished. The battle was won but the Rana had survived.
Expedition to Kabul
In 1580 CE some prominent Muslim officers of Akbar, displeased with his liberal religious policies, started to conspire against him. One Qazi Muhammad Yazdi declared it the duty of every Muslim to rebel against Akbar. In
Biharand Bengalthey declared Mirza Hakim, Akbar's stepbrother and Governor of Kabul, to be the emperor. Akbar sent armies to Biharand Bengalto crush this rebellion, while he himself started towards Kabul; Man Singh was with him. On March 8, 1581 Akbar reached Macchiwara and soon arrived on the banks of river Indus. Here he sent an advance force led by Man Singh to Kabul. Although Akbar's army was hesitating to cross the swelling Indus River, Man Singh was able to cross it first followed by troops. Hearing the news Mirza Hakim fled to Gurband. Following the army, Akbar himself arrived at Kabul on August 10, 1581. Hakim was pardoned by Akbar but his sister "Bakhtunissa Begum" was appointed Governor of Kabul. Akbar returned to Fatehpur Sikri. After the return of Akbar, Bakhtunissa remained as the nominal head of state while Hakim acted as the Governor in fact. Hakim died in July, 1582. Kabul was annexed by the Mughal Empire and Man Singh was appointed Governor. He remained there for some years and built a fortress there, used by succeeding Mughal Governors. Man Singh brought many talented men with him when he returned from Kabul. Some of their descendants still live in Jaipur.
Again in 1585 CE some Afghan tribes rose against the Mughal empire. The "Yusufzai" and "Mandar" tribes were the main ones among them. Akbar sent an army under Zain Khan, Hakim Abul Fateh and Raja
Birbalto control these revolting tribes. However they failed to control the revolting Afghans and Raja Birbal, friend of Akbar and one of his Navratnaswas also killed in the battle with Afghans. Akbar then sent Raja Todar Malto crush the revolt and called Raja Man Singh to help Todar Mal. Todarmal had some success in controlling the rebellious Afghan tribes. But the real source of the revolt was behind the Khyber Pass. It was hard to cross this pass which was dominated by Afghan "Kabailies". Man Singh was accompanied by "Rao Gopaldas" of Nindarin this expedition, who bravely made way for Mughal army in the pass. After crossing the pass Man Singh decisively defeated five Major tribes of Afghans including "Yusufzai" and "Mandar" tribes. The flag of Amber was changed from "Katchanar" (green climber in white base) to "Pachranga" (five coloured) to commemorate this victory. This flag continued in use until accession of Jaipur state in India. This permanently crushed the revolt and the area remained peaceful thereafter.
In 1586 CE Akbar sent another army under
Raja Bhagwant Das, father of Kunwar Man Singh to win Kashmir. Kashmir was included in the Mughal Empire and made a Sarkar (district) of Kabul province. Man Singh and his father Raja Bhagwant Das are reputed to have brought the technology of cannon production from Kabul and Lahore to Amber.
Conquest of Orissa
In 1588 Man Singh was appointed Governor of
Bihar. In 1590, "Qatlu Khan Lohani" of Orissa declared himself independent and assumed the name of "Qatlu Shah". Raja Man Singh started an expedition against him. Before facing Man Singh, Qatlu Shah was killed by Rao Gopaldas of Nindar. Qatlu Khan's son Nasir Khan, after little resistance, accepted Mughal sovereignty. Nasir Khan was then appointed Governor of Orissa. Nasir Khan remained faithful to the Mughal empire for two years but after that he violated the conditions of his treaty and seized the Jagannath temple of Puri, which was Mughal territory. Man Singh again attacked Orissa and decisively defeated Nasir Khan on April 9, 1592 in a battle near the present day Medinipurtown and ousted him from Orissa [Sarkar, Jadunath (1984, reprint 1994). "A History of Jaipur", New Delhi: Orient Longman ISBN 81 250 0333 9, pp.75-79] . Orissa then was annexed to the Mughal Empire and included in Bengal "Subah" (Province).
Governor of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa
On March 17, 1594 Raja Man Singh was appointed
Subahdar(Governor) of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. He made his headquarters in Rohtas, in Bihar. He built a Haveli (Palatial House) in Rohtas Fort. During his tenure as Governor Man Singh further expanded the Mughal Empire by defeating and subduing the small kingdoms of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. He defeated the Raja of Jessore, now part of Bangladesh, and brought the famous idol of " Shila Devi" to Amber. The temple of this goddess is still present in Amber fort. During Navratris lakhs of people gather here. Raja Man Singh served three successive terms as Governor of this area, in 1594-98, 1601-1605, 1605-1606.
Jahangir and twilight of Man Singh I
Prince Salim was born after many prayers. But he soon became addicted to alcohol and opium. He disobeyed royal orders and became infamous for torture. He had Abul Fazal murdered. Akbar tried hard to reform him. Salim had a son, Khusrau. Two of Akbar's sons, Murad and Danial, died in his lifetime. The royal court was divided into two factions, one favouring Khusrau and the other Salim to be the next emperor. Raja Man Singh and Mirza Ajij Koka were in Khusrau's favour. In 1605, when Akbar fell ill, he appointed Salim to be his heir. Though Man Singh opposed Salim's accession to the throne during Akbar's lifetime, he never opposed Jahangir after his coronation. After
Akbar's death, Jahangir(Salim) became emperor. Man Singh was initially sent as Subahdarof Bengal on November 10, 1605 for a short period, but soon he was replaced by Qutb-ud-Din Khan Koka on September 2, 1606 [Sarkar, Jadunath (1984, reprint 1994). "A History of Jaipur", New Delhi: Orient Longman ISBN 81 250 0333 9, pp.86-87] . Jahangir also ordered removal of some of the modifications which had been made by Raja Man Singh to his palace at Amber. But in 1611 CE the southern provinces of Ahmad Nagar, Berar and Khandesh defied Mughal sovereignty under Malik Ambar. Jahangirsent Raja Man Singh and others to crush the revolt.
Man Singh died a natural death on July 6, 1614 at
Ellichpur. Following his death, he was succeeded by his son Mirza Raja Bhau Singh. His direct descendants became known (to this date) as the Rajawats who had the privilege to the Gaddi(throne) of Amber and subsequently Jaipur.
Raja Man Singh was a devotee of
Shri Krishna. He had a seven-storey temple of Krishna constructed at for Srila Rupa Goswami, disciple of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, in Vrindavan. The cost of construction was one crore rupees at that time. Akbar is also believed to have donated the red sandstone for this temple. Aurangzeblater demolished three storeys of this temple. The four-storey temple is still present at Vrindavan. He also constructed a temple of Krishna at his capital, Amber. The place is now known as "Kanak Vrindavan" near Amber Ghati of Jaipur. He constructed the temple of Shila Devi at Amber Fort. He also constructed and repaired many temples at Benaras, Allahabad and various other places. He added much beautification to his palace at Amber. When Akbar called a meeting of his nobles at Fatehpur Sikri in 1582, to discuss Din-i-Ilahi, Raja Bhagwant Daswas the only man to oppose this religion. Later Man Singh also refused to convert to Din-i-Ilahi. It is believed his son Jagat Singh I received education from Goswami Tulsidasand Man Singh himself used to attend his religious lectures. Tulsidaswas a contemporary of Akbar and author of Ramcharit Manas, known as Tulsi Ramayana, and much other famous poetry devoted to Ramaand Hanuman. He used to be accompanied by Charanpoets. There are two occasions when these poets inspired Man Singh by their Poetry:
When the Mughal army was hesitating to cross the
IndusRiver at Attock, the poet said:
:"Sabe bhumi Gopal ki, ya men Atak kahan":"Ja ke man men Atak hai, so hi Atak raha":(All land belongs to one deity, where is hindrance in that? : But they who have hindrance in their souls are hindered).
Hearing this, Man Singh crossed the river first, followed by the army. It is believed after winning Orissa Man Singh wanted to create a naval force and attack "Shri Lanka". But a poet said:
:"Raghupati dino dan, vipra Vibhishan janike":"Man mahipat man, diyo dan kimi lijiye": (Lord Rama had given Lanka to Vibhishan as a
Brahmin. : O Raja Man Singh, stop! How can something, once given, be taken back)?
(Shri Lanka was won by Shri Rama, forefather of Man Singh. Rama appointed Vibhishana, brother of Rawana, to rule it). It is believed that he dropped the idea of winning Lanka, perhaps because the lack of a naval force was a weak point of the Mughal empire.
List of Rajputs
Pratap Singh, Maharana of Mewar
* Beveridge, H. (tr.) (1939, reprint 2000). "The Akbarnama of Abu´l Fazl", Vol. III, Kolkata: The Asiatic Society, ISBN 81 7236 094 0.
* Sarkar, Jadunath (1984, reprint 1994). "A History of Jaipur", New Delhi: Orient Longman ISBN 81 250 0333 9.
* Sagar, Nanuram "Kavita Kalptaru".
* Raja Man Singh of Amber by Rajiva Nain Prasad. Calcutta, World Press Private Ltd., 1966.
* [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/index.jsp?serv=pf&file=00701020&ct=0 Akbarnama by Abul Fazal Part III chapter 31,32,34]
* [http://www.mewarindia.com/ency/man.html Version of Mewar]
* [http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy/ips/j/jaipur.html Genealogy of Kachwaha kings]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Man Singh I — Raja Shri Man Singh Ji Saheb King of Amber Raja Man Singh I of Amber Father Raja Bhagwant Das Mother Rani Sa Bhagawati Ji Sahib … Wikipedia
Jai Singh II of Amber — Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (November 3, 1688 September 21, 1743) was ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur). He was born at Amber, the capital of the Kachwahas. He became ruler of Amber in 1699 at the age of 11 when his father Maharaja … Wikipedia
Amber, India — Amber was a city of Rajasthan state, India, it is now part of the Jaipur Municipal Corporation. Founded by the Meena Raja Alan singh (He was from Chanda clan of Meenas), Amber was a flourishing settlement as far back as 967 AD. Around 1037 AD, it … Wikipedia
Amber Fort — (Hindi: अमेर किला, also known as Amer Fort) is located in Amber, 11 km from Jaipur, Rajasthan state, India. It was the ancient citadel of the ruling Kachhawa clan of Amber, before the capital was shifted to present day Jaipur. Amber Fort is known … Wikipedia
Amber (Indien) — Amber … Deutsch Wikipedia
Amber Dhara — Infobox Television show name = Amber Dhara caption = The promotional logo image of Amber Dhara . format = Drama picture format = 480i (SDTV), runtime = approx. 24 minutes creator = Swastik Pictures director = Muzim Molla starring = see below… … Wikipedia
Jai Singh I — Birth name: Title: Mirza Raja Birth: July 15, 1611 Place of birth: Amber, India Dea … Wikipedia
Pratap Singh of Mewar — Infobox Monarch name = Maharana Pratap title = The Ruler of Mewar reign = 1540– 1597 coronation = predecessor = Maharana Udai Singh II successor = consort = issue = 17 sons and 5 daughters royal house = Suryavanshi Rajputs father = Maharana Udai… … Wikipedia
Jai Singh II — Maharajah Sawai Reign 1699–1743 Predecessor Bishan Singh Successor Isrisingh Spouse Bikaner princess Sheopur princess Udaipur princess Issue Kunwar Shiv Singh (d. 1724) Kunwar Ishwari Singh Kunwar Madho Singh Born … Wikipedia
Bishan Singh — Raja Bishan Singh was the grandson of Raja Ram Singh I and was ruler of Amber, and head of the Kachwaha Rajput clan, from 1688 to 1699. Accession On the death of his grandfather Ramsingh I, the 16 year old Bishan Singh returned to Amber with his… … Wikipedia