- James Baker
James Addison BakerInfobox US Cabinet official
name = James Baker
order = 16th
White House Chief of Staff
term_start = August, 1992
January 20, 1993
successor = Thomas F. "Mack" McLarty
George H.W. Bush
order2 = 61st
United States Secretary of State
George H.W. Bush
January 20, 1989
August 23, 1992
George P. Shultz
order3 = 67th
United States Secretary of the Treasury
February 4, 1985
August 17, 1988
Nicholas F. Brady
order4 = 10th
White House Chief of Staff
January 20, 1981
February 3, 1985
predecessor4 = Jack Watson
Donald T. Regan
birth_date = birth date and age|1930|04|28
birth_place = Houston,
party = Republican
religion = Episcopalian
spouse = Mary Stuart McHenry (1953-1970; her death) Susan Garrett Baker (1973-present)
James Addison Baker, III (born
April 28 1930), is a American attorney, politician, political administrator, and political advisor.
He served as the Chief of Staff in President
Ronald Reagan's first administration and in the final year of the administration of President George H. W. Bush. Baker also served as Secretary of the Treasury from 1985-1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the George H. W. Bush administration. He is also the namesake of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy at Rice Universityin Houston, Texas.
Early life and education
Houston, Texasat 1216 Bissonnet, [http://www.houstontx.gov/planning/forms/procdesg.pdf City of Houston: Procedures for Historic District Designation] . - City of Houston. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2008-07-11] to James Addison Baker Jr. (1892-1973) and Ethel Bonner (née Means) Baker (August 6, 1894-April 26, 1991). His father was a partner of Houston law firm Baker Botts. Baker has a sister, Bonner Baker Moffitt. ["Mother of Secretary of State Baker dies here at 96". - " Houston Chronicle". - April 26, 1991. - Retrieved: 2008-07-11]
The Hill School, a boarding school in Pottstown, Pennsylvania. He graduated from Princeton Universityin 1952. Afterwards, he earned a J.D. (1957) from the University of Texas at Austinand began to practice law in Texas. [ [http://www.hwwilson.com/currentbio/cover_bios/cover_bio_3_07.htm James A. Baker, 3rd] , " Current Biography", March 2007. Accessed December 25, 2007. "Like his father, Jim Baker, as he prefers to be known, attended the Hill School, a college prep school in Pottstown, Pennsylvania, then enrolled at Princeton University."]
Early political career
Baker served in the
United States Marine Corps(1952-1954), attaining the rank of First Lieutenant and later rising to Captain in the United States Marine Corps Reserve.
From 1957 to 1969, and then from 1973 to 1975 he practiced law at the law firm of Andrews & Kurth.
Baker's first wife, the former Mary Stuart McHenry, was very active in the Republican Party, working on the congressional campaigns of
George H. W. Bush. Originally he had been a Democrat. But, previously Baker had been too busy trying to succeed in a competitive law to worry about politics, and he considered himself apolitical. Mary's influence and enthusiasm led Baker to both politics as a career and the Republican Party. He was a regular tennis partner with Bush at the Houston Country Club in the late 1950s. When Bush decided to run for the Senate in 1969, he decided to run for the congressional seat being vacated by Bush, with Bush's support. But, then Mary Stuart was diagnosed with cancer, he changed his mind. Mary Baker died of breast cancerin February 1970. Bush then encouraged Baker to get active to deal with the grief. Something Bush knew something about and had done when his daughter, Pauline Robinson (1949–1953), died of leukemia. Baker became chairman of Bush's Harris County Campaign. And even though Bush lost to Lloyd Bentsen, he became the Republican Party of Texas Finance Chairman in 1971. The following year he selected as the Gulf Coast Regional Chairman for the Richard Nixonpresidential campaign. For 1973 and 1974 Baker returned to practicing law full-time at Andrews & Kurth.Newhouse, John. - "Profiles: The Tactician". - " The New Yorker". - May 7, 1990. - pp.50-82. - Retrieved 2008-07-11] [http://diglib.princeton.edu/ead/eadGetDoc.xq%3fxsl=/ead/xsl/ead2005.pdf%26id=/ead/mudd/publicpolicy/MC197.EAD.xml%26query=%26mime=.pdf "Biography of James Baker"] . - Princeton University Library. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2008-07-11]
He served as Undersecretary of Commerce under President
Gerald Fordin 1975 and ran Ford's unsuccessful re-election campaign in 1976. In 1978, Baker ran unsuccessfully to become State Attorney General of Texas, having been defeated by future Governor Mark Wells White.
After serving as George H.W. Bush's campaign manager in the 1980 Republican primaries, Baker was named
White House Chief of Staffby President Ronald Reaganin 1981. He served in that capacity until 1985. Baker is seen as wielding a high degree of influence over the successes and failures of the first Reagan administration, particularly in domestic policy.
Baker managed the president's 1984 re-election campaign which Reagan won with a record 525 electoral votes total (of 538 possible), and received 58.8% of the popular vote to Mondale's 40.6%. [ [http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/national.php?year=1984 1984 National Results] - U.S. Election Atlas] In the new administration Baker "switched roles" with Secretary of the Treasury
Donald Regan, who replaced Baker as Chief of Staff. While serving as Treasury Secretary, he organized the Plaza Accordof September 1985 and the Baker Plan to target international debt. He tapped Richard Darmanas his deputy secretary of the treasury. Darman would continue in the next administration as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
During the Reagan administration Baker also served on the Economic Policy Council, where he played an instrumental role in achieving the passage of the administration's tax and budget reform legislation package in 1981.
Baker served on Reagan's National Security Council, and remained Treasury Secretary through 1988, during which year he also served as campaign chairman for Bush's successful presidential bid.
George H.W. Bushappointed Baker Secretary of State in 1989. Baker served in this role through 1992.
On January 9, 1991, during the
Geneva Peace Conferencewith Tariq Azizin Geneva, Baker declared that "If there is any user of (chemical or biological weapons), our objectives won't just be the liberation of Kuwait, but the elimination of the current Iraqi regime...". Baker later acknowledged that the intent of this statement was to imply the threat of a unilateral nuclear strike on Iraq's homeland. [ [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/plague/interviews/baker.html Plague war: Interviews: James Baker] . - " Frontline". - PBS. - 1995] [2000. - [http://books.google.com/books?id=s99RxDhaw9AC&pg=PA69&lpg=PA69&ots=H2f6TlxaCh&sig=H6CpiQvvwVAEiDmkVmdh2tkNoYI "Sadam's Toxic Arsenal"] . - "Planning the Unthinkable". - ISBN 0801437768]
Baker helped to construct the 34-nation alliance that fought alongside the United States in the Gulf War.
He was awarded the
Presidential Medal of Freedomin 1991. From 1992 to 1993, he served as Bush's White House Chief of Staff, the same position that he had held during the first Reagan administration.
In 1993 Baker became the founding chair of the James A. Baker III Institute of Public Policy at
Rice Universityin Houston, Texas.
In 1995 Baker published his
memoirsof service as Secretary of State in a book entitled "The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War and Peace, 1989-1992" (ISBN 0-399-14087-5).
In March 1997 Baker became the Personal Envoy of the
UN Secretary-Generalfor Western Sahara. ["U.N. ENVOY: Asking Baker to resolve dispute is good choice". - " Houston Chronicle". - March 20, 1997] In June 2004 he resigned from this position, frustrated over the lack of progress in reaching a complete settlement acceptable to both the government of Moroccoand the pro-independence Polisario Front. He left behind the Baker II plan, accepted as a suitable basis of negotiations by the Polisario and unanimously endorsed by the Security Council, but rejected by Morocco.
In addition to the numerous recognitions received by Baker, he was presented with the prestigious Woodrow Wilson Award for public service on September 13, 2000 in
Baker served as chief legal adviser for
George W. Bushduring the 2000 election campaign and oversaw the Florida recount. A 2008 film "Recount" was made about the days following the election. During the making of the film Baker was interviewed.
State of Denial", a book by investigative reporter Bob Woodward, says that White House Chief of Staff, Andrew Card, urged President Bush to replace Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeldwith Baker following the 2004 election.
On March 15, 2006, Congress announced the formation of the
Iraq Study Group, a high-level panel of prominent former officials charged by members of Congress with taking a fresh look at America's policy on Iraq. Baker was the Republican co-chair along with Democratic Representative Lee H. Hamilton, to advise Congress on Iraq.Paley, Amit R. - [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/08/AR2006100800267.html "U.S. and Iraqi Forces Clash With Sadr Militia in South"] . - " Washington Post". - October 9, 2006] Baker also advised George W. Bush on Iraq. [ [http://www.insightmag.com/Media/MediaManager/Baker.htm "Baker surfaces as key adviser to Bush on Iraq"] . - "Insight Magazine". - September 12, 2006]
The Iraq Study Group examined a number of ideas, including one that would create a new power-sharing arrangement in Iraq that would give more autonomy to regional factions.Sanger, David E. - "G.O.P.'s Baker Hints Iraq Plan Needs Change". - "
New York Times". - October 9, 2006] On October 9, 2006, the " Washington Post" quoted co-chairman Baker as saying "our commission believes that there are alternatives between the stated alternatives, the ones that are out there in the political debate, of 'stay the course' and 'cut and run'". Reiterating that there are alternatives in Iraq for the United Statesother than the "stay-the-course" policy of the Bush administration.
Other advisory positions
Baker has formal involvement with the country of
Azerbaijanas he serves on the Honorary Council of Advisers for the U.S. Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce. [ [http://www.usacc.org/contents.php?cid=2 Honorary Council of Advisers] ] [ [http://www.usacc.org/ U.S. Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce] ]
Until 2005 he was senior counsel to the
Carlyle Groupand is currently a senior partner at the law firm of Baker Botts.
Baker met his first wife, the former Mary Stuart McHenry, of
Dayton, Ohio, while on spring breakin Bermudawith the Princeton University rugby team. They married in 1953. Mary Baker died of breast cancerin February 1970.
June 15, 2002, Virginia Graeme Baker, the 7-year-old granddaughter of Baker, daughter of Nancy and James Baker IV, was the victim of suction-pump entrapment in an in-ground spa. [Dumas, Bob. - [http://www.poolspanews.com/2003/102/102entrapment.html "Troubled Waters"] - "Pool & Spa News". - October 2003] To promote greater safety in pools and spas, Nancy Baker gave testimony to the Consumer Product Safety Commission, [Chow, Shern-Min. - [http://www.vac-alert.com/EntrapmentArticle23.html "Former Secretary of state pushes for hot tub safety standards"] . - Vac-Alert. - June 29, 2007] and James Baker helped formed an advocacy group, [Press Releases: [http://www.usa.safekids.org/tier3_cd.cfm?content_item_id=22070&folder_id=300 "Former Secretary of State James Baker speaks in support of legislation intended to prevent accidental drowning"] . - Safe Kids Worldwide. - May 2, 2006] which led to the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act (15 USC 8001). [ [http://www.cpsc.gov/pssa.pdf "Virginia Graeme Baker Pool And Spa Safety Act"] . - Consumer Product Safety Commission. - | [http://www.vac-alert.com/documents/cpsc_staff_interpretations_tradefinal.pdf at - Vac-Alert] . - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document)]
* 1995: - "The Politics of Diplomacy". with Thomas M DeFrank. - New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. - ISBN 9780399140877
* 2006: - " 'Work Hard, Study... And Keep Out of Politics!': Adventures and Lessons from an Unexpected Public Life". with Steve Fiffer. - New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. - ISBN 9780399153778
*Bryce, Robert, (2004). - "Cronies: Oil, the Bushes, and the Rise of Texas, America's Superstate". - New York: Perseus Books Group. - ISBN 9781586481889
* [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15674301/site/newsweek/ "What the Baker Commission is Ignoring"]
* [http://www.dailyprincetonian.com/archives/2006/11/27/news/16726.shtml Profile in the Daily Princetonian]
* [http://www.bakerbotts.com/lawyers/detail.aspx?id=a1789334-3f27-48d5-b844-211455e4beff Biography on Baker Botts LLP website]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1325971,00.html Article in the Guardian]
* [http://www.bakerinstitute.org Baker Institute for Public Policy]
* [http://www.booktv.org/feature/index.asp?segid=7569&schedID=457 "Work Hard, Study...and Keep Out of Politics!"] Video of James Baker discussing his memoirs. November 4, 2006.
* [http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tom-hayden/troops-out-oil-companies_b_35816.html Troops Out, Oil Companies In: The Baker Agenda?] "
Huffington Post" article discussing the possible oil agenda in Iraq.
* [http://www.RecountMovie.com Recount Movie]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
James Baker — James Addison Baker III (* 28. April 1930 in Houston, Texas) ist ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Diplomat. Er war von 1989 bis 1992 Außenminister der Vereinigten Staaten unter Präsident George Bush … Deutsch Wikipedia
James Baker — James Baker. James Addison Baker III (nacido el 28 de abril de 1930), es un político y diplomático estadounidense que fue Secretario de Estado (el equivalente a Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores en Estados Unidos) entre 1989 y 1992. Biografía Nacido … Wikipedia Español
James Baker — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Baker. James Baker James Addison Baker III Manda … Wikipédia en Français
James Baker — (born 1930) American Secretary of State (1989 1992) … English contemporary dictionary
James Baker (disambiguation) — James Baker, Jim Baker, or Jamie Baker is a name shared by the following persons:Public officials*James Baker (born 1930), was a White House Chief of Staff, Secretary of the Treasury, and Secretary of State under Presidents Ronald Reagan and… … Wikipedia
James Baker Hall — (b. April 14, 1935) is an American poet, novelist, photographer and teacher. Biography James Baker Hall was born in Lexington, Kentucky in 1935. He was raised in a southern family of means and social standing, only to have a family scandal turn… … Wikipedia
James Baker (musician) — Infobox musical artist Name = James Baker Img capt = Img size = 150 Landscape = Background = solo singer Birth name = James Baker Alias = Born = 1960(?) flagicon|AUS Perth, Western Australia, Australia Died = Origin = Instrument = Black Pearl SLX … Wikipedia
James Baker Institute — The James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, often shortened to Baker Institute, is a think tank on the campus of Rice University in Houston, Texas. Founded in 1993, it has become a notable center of public policy research. It is named for … Wikipedia
James Baker (cricketer) — James Bray Baker (born 1792 in Hailsham, Sussex; died 30 January 1839 in Hailsham) was an English cricketer who played for Sussex from 1816 to 1828. He also played for Kent in 1825 and 1826; and made appearances for The B s team in 1817 and… … Wikipedia
Chocolatier James Baker — James Baker était un industriel américain, qui a ouvert la première fabrique de chocolat américaine à Dorchester, dans le Massachusetts, près de Boston. Après des études de médecine à Harvard, rencontre en 1763 un immigrant irlandais sans le sou … Wikipédia en Français