- Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute
The Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute (later the Goring Institute) was founded in 1920 to further the science of
psychoanalysis. Its founding members included Karl Abrahamand Max Eitingon. The scientists at the institute furthered Sigmund Freud's work but also challenged many of his ideas. During the 1920s, Berlin became a center of psychoanalysis. The Berlin Institute was the first psychoanalytic training center in the world. It introduced the three-column model (theoretical courses, personal analysis, first patients under supervision) which was later adopted my most other training centers. Ernst Simmel, Hanns Sachs, Franz Alexander, Sandor Rado, Karen Horney, Siegfried Bernfeld, Otto Fenichel, Theodor Reik, Wilhelm Reichand Melanie Kleinwere among the many psychoanalysts who worked at the Institute. The policlinic made psychoanalysis available for poor people. Many of the leading psychoanalysts working at the Berlin Institute were exiled or killed.
In 1933 Freud's books were burned in Berlin. During the time of the
Third Reichnon-Jewish German psychoanalysts tried to "save" psychoanalysis by collaborating with other psychotherapeutic currents and with the nazis. In 1936 the "Deutsches Institut für psychologische Forschung und Psychotherapie e.v." was formed (the socalled Goring Institute). Its director Matthias Göringwas a cousin of Hermann Göring. At the institute some psychoanalytic training was possible. Not all psychoanalysts were opportunists. John Rittmeister, head of the policlinic, who had became a member of the resistance group "Rote Kapelle"( Red Orchestra (spy)) was sentenced to death and executed in May 1943.
*Geoffrey Cocks, Psychotherapy in the Third Reich—The Göring Institute, New York: Oxford University Press, 1985 (based on his dissertation: Psyche and Swastika: neue deutsche Seelenheilkunde ; 1933 - 1945, 1975)
*Geoffrey Cocks, Repressing, Remembering, Working Through: German Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the "Missed Resistance" in the Third Reich,"The Journal of Modern History", Vol. 64, Supplement: Resistance Against the Third Reich (Dec., 1992), pp. S204-S216
* Zehn Jahre Berliner Psychoanalytisches Institut : (Poliklinik und Lehranstalt) / Hrsg. v.d. Dt. Psychoanalyt. Gesellschaft. Mit e. Vorw. v. Sigmund Freud, Wien : Internat. Psychoanalyt. Verl., 1930
*Bannach, H.-J.: "Die wissenschaftliche Bedeutung des alten Berliner Psychoanalytischen Instituts" In: "Psyche" 23, 1969, pp. 242-254
*Regine Lockot, "Erinnern und Durcharbeiten : zur Geschichte der Psychoanalyse und Psychotherapie im Nationalsozialismus", Frankfurt am Main : Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1985
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