- Spent fuel pool
Spent fuel pool (SFP) are storage pools for
spent fuelfrom nuclear reactors. Typically 40 or more feet deep, with the bottom 14 feet equipped with storage racks designed to hold fuel assemblies removed from the reactor. These fuel pools are specially designed at the reactor in which the fuel was used and situated at the reactor site. In many countries, the fuel assemblies, after being in the reactor for 3 to 6 years, are stored underwater for 10 to 20 years before being sent for reprocessing or dry cask storage. The water cools the fuel and provides shielding from radiation.
While only about 8 feet of water is needed to keep radiation levels below acceptable levels, the extra depth provides a safety margin and allows fuel assemblies to be manipulated without special shielding to protect the operators.
About one-fourth to one-third of the total fuel load of a reactor is removed from the core every 12 to 18 months and replaced with fresh fuel. Spent fuel rods generate intense heat and dangerous radiation that must be contained. Fuel is moved from the reactor and manipulated in the pool generally by automated handling systems, although some manual systems are still in use. The fuel bundles fresh from the core normally are segregated for several months for initial cooling before being sorted in to other parts of the pool to wait for final disposal. Metal racks keep the fuel in safe positions to avoid the possibility of a “criticality”— a nuclear
chain reactionoccurring. Water quality is tightly controlled to prevent the fuel or its cladding from degrading. Current regulations permit re-arranging of the spent rods so that maximum efficiency of storage can be achieved. The maximum temperature of the spent fuel bundles decreases significantly between 2 and 4 years, and less from 4 to 6 years. The fuel pool water is continuously cooled to remove the heat produced by the spent fuel assemblies. Pumps circulate water from the spent fuel pool to heat exchangers then back to the spent fuel pool. Radiolysis, the dissociation of molecules by radiation is of particular concern in wet storage as water may be split by residual radiation and hydrogengas may accumulate increasing the risk of explosions. For this reason the air in the room of the pools, as well as the water must permanently be monitored and treated.
Other possible configurations
Rather than manage the pool’s inventory to minimise the possibility of continued fission activity, the Chinese are building a 200 MWt nuclear reactor to run on used fuel from nuclear power stations to generate process heat for
district heatingand desalination. Essentially an SFP operated as a deep pool-type reactor; it will operate at atmospheric pressure, which will reduce the engineering requirements for safety. [http://www.uic.com.au/news502.htm]
Other research envisions a similar low-power reactor using spent fuel where instead of limiting the production of hydrogen by radiolysis, it is encouraged by the addition of
catalysts and ion scavengers to the cooling water. This hydrogen would then be removed to use as fuel. [http://aiche.confex.com/aiche/2005/techprogram/P21198.HTM]
Without cooling, the fuel pool water will heat up and boil. If the water boils or drains away, the spent fuel assemblies will overheat and either melt or catch on fire. Fear has been expressed that
sabotage, an accident, or an attack which partially or completely drains a plant's spent fuel pool or disables its cooling, might be capable of causing a high-temperature fire that could release large quantities of radioactive material into the environment. Since there is no standard design, most SFPs are housed in far less robust structures than reactor containment vessels and moreover, an SFP often contains much more radioactive material than the reactor core, this is not a misplaced concern.
It is estimated that by
2014, all of the nuclear powerplants in the United Stateswill be out of room in their spent fuel pools, most likely requiring the use of temporary storage of some kind. Yucca Mountainis expected to open in 2017at the earliest.
Nuclear fuel cycle
Dry cask storage
Spent nuclear fuel shipping cask
Deep geological repository
* [http://www.inesap.org/bulletin22/bul22art30.htm Radiological Terrorism: Sabotage of Spent Fuel Pool]
* [http://www.nrc.gov/waste/spent-fuel-storage.html Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel] "U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)"
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Spent nuclear fuel shipping cask — A typical SNF shipping cask mounted on a railroad car. Spent nuclear fuel shipping casks are used to transport spent nuclear fuel used in nuclear power plants and research reactors to disposal sites such as the nuclear reprocessing center at… … Wikipedia
Pool site — One or more spent fuel storage pools that has a single cask loading area. Each dry cask storage area is considered a separate site. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration s Energy Glossary … Energy terms
Nuclear fuel cycle — The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. It consists of steps in the front end, which are the preparation of the fuel, steps in the service period in which… … Wikipedia
Behavior of nuclear fuel during a reactor accident — This page is devoted to a discussion of how uranium dioxide nuclear fuel behaves during both normal nuclear reactor operation and under reactor accident conditions such as overheating. Work in this area is often very expensive to conduct, and so… … Wikipedia
Nuclear fuel — Process … Wikipedia
Natural pool — This German swimming pond highlights how NSPs can be designed to resemble a part of the surrounding environs … Wikipedia
Anchialine pool — Anchialine Ponds in Waikaloa Beach, Hawaii An anchialine pool or pond is a landlocked body with a subterranean connection to the ocean. Anchialine pools are a feature of coastal aquifers which are density stratified, with the water near the… … Wikipedia
Brine pool — These craters mark the formation of brine pools, from which salt has seeped through the seafloor and encrusted the nearby substrate … Wikipedia
Nuclear fuel bank — A nuclear fuel bank is a proposed approach to provide countries access to enriched nuclear fuel, without the need for them to possess enrichment technology. The basic concept is that countries who do have enrichment technology would donate… … Wikipedia
Dry cask storage — Example of a dry cask storage area. Dry cask storage is a method of storing high level radioactive waste, such as spent nuclear fuel that has already been cooled in the spent fuel pool for at least one year.. These casks are typically … Wikipedia