Office of the United States Trade Representative


Office of the United States Trade Representative
Office of the United States Trade Representative
US-TradeRepresentative-Seal.svg
Agency overview
Formed 1962
Preceding agency Office of the Special Trade Representative
Headquarters Winder Building 600 17th St. NW Washington, D.C.
Employees 200
Agency executives Ron Kirk, Ambassador
Peter Allgeier, Deputy Ambassador
Demetrios Marantis, Deputy Ambassador
Parent agency Executive Office of the President of the United States
Website
www.ustr.gov
  Priority Watch List
  Watch List
  Section 306 Monitoring
  Status Pending

The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is the United States government agency responsible for developing and recommending United States trade policy to the president of the United States, conducting trade negotiations at bilateral and multilateral levels, and coordinating trade policy within the government through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) and Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG).

Established as the Office of the Special Trade Representative (STR) under the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, the USTR is part of the Executive Office of the President. With over 200 employees, the USTR has offices in Geneva, Switzerland, and Brussels, Belgium. The current United States Trade Representative is Ron Kirk.

Contents

Staff

The head of the office holds the title of United States Trade Representative (USTR), which is a Cabinet-level position (though not technically within the Cabinet). The United States Trade Representative and Deputy United States Trade Representatives (DUSTR) carry the title of Ambassador.

Ron Kirk is the current Trade Representative, with Demetrios Marantis, Michael Punke and Miriam Sapiro serving as Deputy Trade Representatives.

The Special 301 Report

The Special 301 Report is prepared annually by the USTR under Section 182 as amended of the Trade Act of 1974. The Act states that the USTR must on an annual basis, by April of each year:

"identify those foreign countries that deny adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable markets access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, and those foreign countries identified under" this "paragraph that are determined by the Trade Representative to be priority foreign countries". The Act defines "priority foreign countries" as "those foreign countries that have the most onerous or egregious acts, policies, or practices that deny adequate and effective intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable market access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, whose acts, policies, or practices described in" this "paragraph have the greatest adverse impact (actual or potential) on the relevant United States products, and that are not entering into good faith negotiations, or making significant progress in bilateral or multilateral negotiations to provide adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights".[1]

The Uruguay Round Agreement Act furthermore states that countries may be identified under Special 301 "taking into account the history of intellectual property laws and practices of the foreign country, including any previous identifications" and "the history of efforts of the United States, and the response of the foreign country, to achieve adequate and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights". It also states that compliance with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights does not preclude a country from being identified as denying "adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights".[2]

List of United States Trade Representatives

Image Trade Representative From To Appointed by
ChristianHerterSoS.jpg Christian Herter 1962 1966 John F. Kennedy
William M. Roth 1967 1969 Lyndon B. Johnson
Carl J. Gilbert 1969 1971 Richard Nixon
William D. Eberle 1971 1975 Richard Nixon
FrederickBailyDent.jpg Frederick B. Dent 1975 1977 Gerald Ford
RobertStrauss.jpg Robert S. Strauss 1977 1979 Jimmy Carter
Reubin Askew 1979 1981 Jimmy Carter
Bill brock.jpg Bill Brock 1981 1985 Ronald Reagan
Clayton Keith Yeutter, 1990-04-24.jpg Clayton K. Yeutter 1985 1989 Ronald Reagan
U.S. Trade Representative Carla A. Hills, at the initialing ceremony for the North American Free Trade Agreement in San Antonio, TX, October 7..jpg Carla A. Hills 1989 1993 George H. W. Bush
MichaelKantor.jpg Mickey Kantor 1993 1997 Bill Clinton
Charlene Barshefsky 1997 2001 Bill Clinton
Zoellick, Robert (official portrait 2008).jpg Robert Zoellick 2001 2005 George W. Bush
Rob Portman official photo.jpg Rob Portman 2005 2006 George W. Bush
Susan Schwab, USTR official photo.jpg Susan Schwab 2006 2009 George W. Bush
Ron Kirk official portrait.jpg Ron Kirk 2009 present Barack Obama

See also

References

External links


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