- History of the Turkish people
:"This page is for
Turkish people(Turkic people of Turkey), history of Turkic peoplescan be found under History of the Turkic peoples."The Turks ("Turkish people"), whose name was first used in history in the 6th centuryby the Chinese, [" [http://www.bartleby.com/65/tu/Turks.html Turks] ", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.] [ Encyclopædia Britannica, Central Asia, history of [http://search.eb.com/eb/article-73534 Turks] , Online Academic Edition, 2007.] are a society whose language belongs to the Turkic language family (which in turn some classify as a subbranch of Altaiclinguistic family. [ [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=tur Linguistic Lineage for Turkish] ] ) They identify themselves as being descended of Oghuz Turkswho migrated to Anatoliain 11th century. Throughout history, the Turkic peopleshave established numerous states in various geographical regions on the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa. Turks brought their culture to the places to which they had migrated and were also affected by the cultures of these regions.
Origins (6th to 10th centuries)
According to Chinese records, Turks appear in political history of Asia with the
Huns. The Hunswere a coalition of various central Asian nomads, including Turks. The Hun State which first appeared in the 3rd century B.C. became a significant and powerful state during the reign of its founder, Mete Khan. Having a defined and special strategy, Mete Khan defeated the Mongolsand then the Yuechis and after, having conquered the western gates and trade routes of Chinaunder his control, gained significant economic power. When Mete Khan died, the Great Hun Empire was at its peak due to its military organization, domestic and foreign policies, religion, army, war strategies and arts.
After the collapse of the Asian Hun State, a new state called the Göktürk Empire was founded at the foot of the
Altay Mountains. The Göktürkswho were the first to employ the word "Turk" in their official state name, chose Ötüken, the former capital of the empire as a base and established khanates. Later they spread out and became an empire. They professed that a khanate could not be ruled by means of war and bravery alone and that wisdom was very important. Bilge ("means wise") Khan and Kül Tegin are noted as the wisest and most heroic figures among Turkish statesmen in history. It was because of this that both these khans and Tonyukuk, another Göktürk Khan, immortalized their accomplishments with inscriptions. These inscriptions are the first written texts of the Turkish language.
Migration to Anatolia (11th to 13th centuries)
Before the Turkic settlement the local population of
Anatoliaexpanded and reached an estimated level of 12 to 14 million people during the late Roman Period. [ [http://www.jstor.org/pss/3596052 Late Medieval Balkan and Asia Minor Population.Josiah C. Russell.Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Oct., 1960), pp. 265-274] ] [ [http://www.jstor.org/pss/280733 Estimating Population at Ancient Military Sites: The Use of Historical and Contemporary Analogy. P. Nick Kardulias. American Antiquity, Vol. 57, No. 2 (Apr., 1992), pp. 276-287] ] [J.C. Russell, Late Anicent And Medieval Population, published as vol. 48 pt. 3 of the Transactions Of The American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1958.] The main migration( expansion) of Turkic peopleto Anatoliaoccurred at the same time of Turkic migrationbetween the 6th and 11th centuries (the Early Middle Ages), when they spread across most of Central Asiaand into Europeand the Middle East. The Seljuk Turks("Selçuk Türkleri") were the first Turkish power to arrive in the 11th centuryas conquerors, who proceeded to gradually conquer the land of existing Byzantine Empire. In the following centuries the local population began to be assimilated from the emerging Turkic migrants. Over time, as word spread regarding the victory of the Turks in Anatolia, more Turkic migrants began to intermingle with the local inhabitants, which helped to bolster the Turkish-speaking population.
However according to
DNAstudies the Turkish and Azeripopulations, are atypical among Altaicspeakers in having low frequencies of Asiatic haplotypes. Rather, these two Turkic-speaking groups seem to be closer to populations from the Middle East, Caucasusand the Balkans. This finding is consistent with a model in which the Turkic languages, originating in the Altai- Sayanregion of Central Asiaand northwestern Mongolia, were imposed on the indigenous peoples with relatively little genetic admixture, possible example of elite cultural dominance- driven linguisticreplacement. The Central Asian contribution to Anatolia was the lowest value among the populations analyzed. This observation may be explained by Anatoliahaving the lowest migrant/ residentratio at the time of Turkic migrations. [ [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117873906/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans.] ] [ [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/98/18/10244 The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity] ]
Ottoman Empire (14th century to 1921)
The successor of the Seljuks, was the
Ottoman Empire(named after its first leader Osman Gazi), began as a small tribe of nomadic Turks who would come to dominate the region for 600 years. Its first capital was located in Bursa in 1326 and by 1453 under Sultan Mehmed IIthe Ottomans would conquer the last stronghold of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople(much later known as Istanbul) (see fall of Constantinople). The Empire reached its peak under Sultan Suleyman the Magnificentbetween 1520–1555, where territories stretched from Hungaryto the Persian Gulf, from Crimeato Algeria. Following the death of Suleyman, the Empire's expansion pace slowed with successive inept administrations and began a slow course of gradual decline in 18th century.
Throughout the 19th and early 20th century the Ottoman Empire began to lose a foothold on its territories, first with
Algeriaand Tunisia, then Greece, Egypt, Libyaand the Balkansin the 1912– 1913 Balkan Wars. Faced with territorial losses on all sides the Ottoman Empire forged an alliance with Germanywho supported it with troops and equipment. In World War Ithe Ottoman Empire was forced into the War, after granting two German warships as refugees.
October 30, 1918, the Armistice of Mudros(Mondros Mütarekesi) was signed, followed by the imposition of Treaty of Sèvreson August 10 1920by Allied Powers, which was never ratified. These sought to break up the Ottoman Empire and force large concessions on territories of the Empire in favour of its rival Greecewho had switched sides against the Germans. Greece and Italywere awarded parts of the coast of Anatolia(Asia Minor), while Francewere granted lands south of Taurus Mountains. The city of İzmir (Smyrna) was given to Greece.
Republic of Turkey
Republic of Turkeywas the successor stateof the Ottoman Empire, following the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new Republican assembly of Turkeyin 1922. This new regime delivered the 'coup de grâce' to the Ottoman state which had been practically wiped away from the world stage following the First World War. The history is covered under three headings: War of Independence, single-party period and multi-party period.
Notes and references
Turkish military history
History of Turkic people
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