Boutros Boutros-Ghali

Boutros Boutros-Ghali

Infobox Secretary-General | name=Boutros Boutros-Ghali

order=6th Secretary-General of the United Nations
term_start=1 January 1992
term_end=1 January 1997
predecessor=Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
successor=Kofi Annan
birth_date= birth date and age|1922|11|14
birth_place=Cairo, Egypt
Nicknames= Bubba G, Nadda, Alan Hansan dead=alive
spouse=Leia Maria Boutros-Ghali
religion=Coptic Orthodox Christian

Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي, Coptic: Ⲃⲟⲩⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲃⲟⲩⲧⲣⲟⲥ Ⲅⲁⲗⲏ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to January 1997.

Academic career

Boutros Boutros-Ghali was born in Cairo into a Coptic Christian family ("Boutros" being the Arabized form of "Petros", the Coptic form of the name Peter) that had already provided Egypt with a prime minister (Boutros Ghali, 1846 – 1910). He graduated from Cairo University in 1946 and earned a J.D. degree in international law from the Thomas M. Cooley Law School as well as a diploma in international relations from the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris (best known as simply Sciences Po) in 1949. The same year, he was appointed Professor of International Law and International Relations at Cairo University, a position which he held until 1977. He became President of the Centre of Political and Strategic Studies in 1975 and President of the African Society of Political Studies in 1980. He was a Fulbright Research Scholar at Columbia University from 1954 to 1955, Director of the Centre of Research of the Hague Academy of International Law from 1963 to 1964, and Visiting Professor at the Faculty of Law at Paris University from 1967 to 1968. He is also the Honorary Rector of the Graduate Institute of Peace Studies, a branch of Kyunghee University Seoul.

Egyptian political career

He had long been closely associated with the ruling clique in Egypt. His political career took off during the days of former president Anwar El-Sadat. He was a member of the Central Committee of the Arab Socialist Union (1974-77). He had served as Egypt's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs from 1977 until early 1991. He then became Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs for several months before moving to the UN. As Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, he played a part in the peace agreements between Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. [ [ Boutros Boutros-Ghali: The world is his oyster] ]

According to investigative journalist Linda Melvern, Boutros-Ghali approved a secret $26 million arms sale to the government of Rwanda in 1990 when he was Egyptian Foreign Minister, weapons stockpiled by the Hutu regime as part of the fairly public, longterm preparations for the subsequent genocide. He served as United Nations Secretary-General when the killings occurred 4 years later. [ [ Melvern, Linda: A PEOPLE BETRAYED: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide/]

UN career

Elected to the top post of the UN in 1991, Boutros-Ghali's term in office remains controversial. He was criticised for the UN's failure to act during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, which officially left over 1 million people dead, and he appeared unable to muster support in the UN for intervention in the continuing Angolan Civil War. One of the hardest periods for his office during his term was dealing with the crisis of the Yugoslav wars after the disintegration of former Yugoslavia. His reputation thus became entangled in the larger controversies over the effectiveness of the UN and the role of the United States in the UN. For his detractors, he came to symbolise the UN's alleged inaction in the face of humanitarian crises.

econd term

In 1996, ten Security Council members, led by African members Egypt, Guinea-Bissau and Botswana, sponsored a resolution backing Boutros-Ghali for a second five-year term, until the year 2001. However, the United States vetoed a second term for Boutros-Ghali. In addition to the United States, the United Kingdom, Poland, South Korea, and Italy did not sponsor this resolution, although all four of those nations voted in support of Boutros-Ghali after the US had firmly declared its intention to veto. Although not the first vetoed (China vetoed the third term of Kurt Waldheim in 1981), Boutros-Ghali was the first and only UN secretary-general not to be elected to a second term in office. He was succeeded at the UN by Kofi Annan.

US counter-terrorism czar Richard Clarke, Michael Sheehan, and James Rubin participated in what they called "Operation Orient Express." From page 201 of Clarke's book Against All Enemies: "Albright and I and a handful of others (Michael Sheehan, Jamie Rubin) had entered into a pact together in 1996 to oust Boutros-Ghali as Secretary General of the United Nations, a secret plan we had called Operation Orient Express, reflecting our hope that many nations would join us in doing in the UN head. In the end, the US had to do it alone (with its UN veto) and Sheehan and I had to prevent the President from giving in to pressure from world leaders and extending Boutros-Ghali's tenure, often by our racing to the Oval Office when we were alerted that a head of state was telephoning the President. In the end Clinton was impressed that we had managed not only to oust Boutros-Ghali but to have Kofi Annan selected to replace him. (Clinton told Sheehan and me, 'Get me a crow, I should [ eat a crow] , because I said you would never pull it off.')"

Later life

From 1997 to 2002 Boutros-Ghali was Secretary-General of La Francophonie, an organisation of French-speaking nations. From 2003 to 2006, he served as the Chairman of the Board of the South Centre, [ [ South Centre website] ] an intergovernmental research organisation of developing countries. He is currently President of the Curatorium Administrative Council at the Hague Academy of International Law. In 2003 Boutros-Ghali was appointed as The Director of the Egyptian National Council of Human Rights, he is still holding this position till today.

Since April 2007 Boutros-Ghali supports the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly and was one of the initial signatories of the Campaign's appeal. In a [ message] to the Campaign, he stressed the necessity to establish democratic participation of citizens at the global level.


Boutros-Ghali has published two memoirs:
*"Egypt's road to Jerusalem" (1997), about the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.
*"" (1999), about his time as Secretary-General at the UN.


*"It would be some time before I fully realised that the United States sees little need for diplomacy. Power is enough. Only the weak rely on diplomacy… The Roman Empire had no need for diplomacy. Nor does the United States." [ [ ZNet's Original Essays and Selected Links Regarding the NATO Bombings] ] [ [ ZNet, Ghali quote] ]
*"The best way to deal with bureaucrats is with stealth and sudden violence." -In describing his relationship with the unwieldy United Nations bureaucracy [ [ Boutros Boutros-Ghali quotes] at]

ee also

*List of prominent Copts



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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Boutros Boutros-Ghali — in Davos (1995) Boutros Boutros Ghali (* 14. November 1922 in Kairo, Ägypten), arabisch ‏بطرس بطرس غالي‎, war sechster Generalsekretär der Vereinten Nationen von Januar 1992 bis Dezember 1996. Geboren als Mitglied einer Familie kop …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Boutros Boutros-Ghali — Boutros Boutros Ghali, nacido el 14 de noviembre de 1922, es un diplomático egipcio que ocupó el cargo de Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas entre enero de 1992 y diciembre de 1996. Boutros Ghali nació en El Cairo, en el seno de una… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Boutros Boutros-Ghali — (født 14. november 1922) var de Forenede Nationers generalsekretær fra januar 1992 til december 1996 …   Danske encyklopædi

  • Boutros Boutros-Ghali — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Boutros et Ghali. Boutros Boutros Ghali Boutros Boutros Ghali en 1995 à Davos …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Boutros-Ghali — Boutros Boutros Ghali im Davos (1995) Boutros Boutros Ghali (* 14. November 1922 in Kairo, Ägypten), arabisch ‏بطرس بطرس غالي‎, war sechster Generalsekretär der Vereinten Nationen vom Januar 1992 bis Dezember 1996 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Boutros-Ghali — Boutros Boutros Ghali Pour les articles homonymes, voir Boutros et Ghali. Secrétaire général de l ONU …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Boutros Ghali — (arabisch ‏بطرس غالي‎) (* 1846; † 20. Februar 1910) war ein ägyptischer Politiker während der englischen Besetzung Ägyptens. Boutros Ghali Pascha war Kind einer zur Oberschicht gehörenden koptisc …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Boutros Ghali (Begriffsklärung) — Boutros Ghali ist der Name folgender Personen: Boutros Ghali, (1846–1910), ägyptischen Außenminister Boutros Boutros Ghali (* 1922), ägyptischer Politiker, sechster Generalsekretär der Vereinten Nationen Youssef Boutros Ghali (* 1952),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Boutros Ghali — Boutros Ghali, Boutros …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Boutros-Ghali — (Boutros) (né en 1922) universitaire et diplomate égyptien. De 1954 à 1977 il enseigna le droit international, puis devint ministre des Affaires étrangères. De 1992 à 1997 il fut secrétaire général de l ONU. En 1997, il fut élu Secrétaire général …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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