Sense of time


Sense of time

Although the sense of time is not associated with a specific sensory system, the work of psychologists and neuroscientists indicates that our brains do have a system governing the perception of time. [cite web
url= http://www.unisci.com/stories/20011/0227013.htm
title= Brain Areas Critical To Human Time Sense Identified
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date= 2001-02-27
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publisher= UniSci - Daily University Science News
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] This is a highly distributed system including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia as its components. One particular component, the suprachiasmatic nuclei, is responsible for the circadian (or daily) rhythm, while other cell clusters appear to be capable of shorter-range (ultradian) timekeeping. The sense of time is impaired in some people with neurological diseases such as Parkinson's Disease and Attention Deficit Disorder.

Psychoactive drugs can also impair the perception of time. Stimulants can lead both humans and rats to overestimate time intervals [cite journal
quotes =
last = Wittmann
first = M.
coauthors = Leland DS, Churan J, Paulus MP.
date = 8 October 2007
title = Impaired time perception and motor timing in stimulant-dependent subjects
journal = Drug Alcohol Depend.
volume = 90
issue = 2-3
pages = 183-92
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url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17434690
format = online abstract
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] [cite journal
quotes =
last = Cheng | first = Ruey-Kuang
coauthors = Macdonald, Christopher J.; Meck, Warren H.
date = 2006
year =
month =
title = Differential effects of cocaine and ketamine on time estimation : Implications for neurobiological models of interval timing
journal = Pharmacology, biochemistry and behavior
volume = 85
issue = 1
pages = 114-122
publisher =
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issn = 0091-3057
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url = http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18303059
format = online abstract
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] while depressants can have the opposite effect. [cite journal
quotes =
last = Tinklenberg
first = Jared R.
coauthors = Walton T. Roth1; Bert S. Kopell
date = | year = 1976
month = January
title = Marijuana and ethanol: Differential effects on time perception, heart rate, and subjective response
journal = Psychopharmacology
volume = 49
issue = 3
pages = 275-279
publisher =
location =
issn =
pmid =
pmc =
doi = 10.1007/BF00426830
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url = http://www.springerlink.com/content/q1227453r481x439/
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] The level of activity in the brain of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and adrenaline may be the reason for this. Errors in estimated time intervals might be caused by varying levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. [cite journal | last = Arzy | first = Shahar | coauthors = Istvan Molnar-Szakacs; Olaf Blanke | date = 2008-06-18
title = Self in Time: Imagined Self-Location Influences Neural Activity Related to Mental Time Travel | journal = The Journal of Neuroscience | volume = 28 | issue = 25 | pages = 6502-6507 | publisher = | issn = | pmid = | doi = 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5712-07.2008 | url = http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/28/25/6502 | format = Abstract
accessdate = 2008-08-25 | quote =
]

References

External links

* [http://www.manchestertiming.co.uk Time perception research at the University of Manchester]
* [http://www.rotman.utoronto.ca/bicpapers/pdf/memoryfortime.pdf "A Cognitive Model of Retrospective Duration Estimations", Hee-Kyung Ahn, et al, March 7, 2006.]
* [http://www.fb10.uni-bremen.de/homepages/wildgen/pdf/antwerpen_time.pdf "Time, Force, Motion, and the Semantics of Natural Languages", Wolfgang Wildgen, "Antwerp Papers in Linguistics", 2003/2004.]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RjlpamhrId8&feature=related Can Time Slow Down?]
* [http://www.pjonline.com/Editorial/20051119/comment/onlooker.html "Interactions emerge between biological clocks", "The Pharmaceutical Journal", Vol 275 No 7376 p644, 19 November 2005] Registration required.
* " [http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/25/45/10369?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&title=time+ratio&andorexacttitle=or&andorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT Time and the Brain: How Subjective Time Relates to Neural Time] " (November 9, 2005). Eagleman, David M.; Peter U. Tse, Dean Buonomano, Peter Janssen, Anna Christina Nobre, Alex O. Holcombe. (Review, full text). "The Journal of Neuroscience" 25 (45):10369-10371.


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