- Battle of the Oder-Neisse
The Battle of the Oder-Neisse is the German name for the initial (operational) phase of one of the last two
strategic offensives conducted by the Red Armyin the Campaign in Central Europe (1 January - 9 May) during World War II. It's initial breakthrough phase was fought over four days, from April 16until April 19 1945, within the larger context of the Battle of Berlin. The Soviet military planners divide the frontal and pincer phases of the operation, named Berlin Strategic Offensive Operationinto:: Settin-Rostock Offensive Operation(16 April 1945 - 8 May 1945) by the 2nd Belorussian Front: Seelow-Berlin Offensive Operation(16 April 1945 - 2 May 1945) by the 1st Belorussian Front: Cottbus-Potsdam Offensive Operation(16 April 1945 - 2 May 1945) by the northern flank and Cavalry Mechanized Groupof the 1st Ukrainian Front: Spremberg-Torgau Offensive Operation(16 April 1945 - 5 May 1945) by the southern flank of the 1st Ukrainian Front
The battle included heavy fighting by the three Fronts of the Marshals of Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky's
2nd Belorussian Front, Georgy Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Frontand Ivan Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front, that assaulted the defending Wehrmacht Army Group Vistula commanded by General Colonel (Generaloberst) Gotthard Heinriciand Field Marshal Ferdinand Schörner' Army Group Centre.
Most of the fighting took place during 1st Belorussian Front's assault on the
Seelow Heights, that were defended by German IX Army (part of Army Group Vistula) , in what became known as the " Battle of the Seelow Heights". 1st Ukrainian Front encountered much lighter resistance crossing the Neisse to penetrate defensive lines of Army Group Centre.
In the early hours on
April 16 1945, the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation began with a massive bombardment by thousands of artillery pieces and Katyusharockets in a barrage which was sustained for as long as two hours on some sectors of the front. [Undoubtedly use of artillery was made throughout the operaiton, but initial bombardment rarely lasted longer then 2 hours, see pp.148-149, "Soviet military operational art: in pursuit of deep battle", (1991)] Shortly afterwards and well before dawn, the 1st Belorussian Front attacked across the Oder, and the 1st Ukrainian Front attacked across the Neisse. The 1st Belorussian Front was strengthened because it had the more difficult assignment and was facing the majority of the German forces in prepared defences.Beevor see References page 217] Ziemke see References page 81]
eelow-Berlin Offensive Operation
The initial attack by the 1st Belorussian Front was a disaster; Heinrici anticipated the move and withdrew his defenders from the first line of trenches just before the Red Army artillery obliterated them. The light from 143 searchlights, which were intended to blind the defenders, was diffused by the early morning mist and made useful silhouettes of the attacking Red Army formations. The swampy ground proved to be a great hindrance and under a German counter-barrage, Red Army casualties were very heavy. Frustrated by the slow advance, or on the direct orders of Stavka, Zhukov threw in his reserves, which in his plan were to have been held back to exploit the expected breakthrough. By early evening, an advance of almost six kilometres had been achieved in some areas, but the German lines remained relatively intact.
Zhukov was forced to report that the Seelow-Berlin Offensive was not going as planned. Stalin, to spur Zhukov, told him that he would give Konev permission to wheel his tank armies towards Berlin from the south.Beevor see References page 217-233] Ziemke see References page 82] On the second day, the 1st Belorussian Front staff were reduced to combing the rear areas for any troops which could be thrown into the battle.Fact|date=May 2008 The Red Army tactic of using dence concentration of firepower was providing the usual results. By nightfall of
April 17, the German front before Zhukov remained unbroken, but only just.
April 18, both Soviet Fronts made steady progress, but Red Army losses were substantial.Fact|date=May 2008 By nightfall, the 1st Belorussian Front had reached the third and final German line of defence.Ziemke see References page 83]
On the fourth day of the battle,
April 19, the 1st Belorussian Front broke through the final line of the Seelow Heights with nothing except severely depleted withdrawing German formations between its troops and Berlin. The remnants of General Theodor Busse's 9th Army, which had been holding the heights, and the remaining northern flank of the 4th Panzer Army, were in danger of being enveloped by elements of the 1st Ukrainian Front.
While the 1st Belorussian Front encircled Berlin, the 1st Ukrainian Front started the battle for the city itself. Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front started his offensive to the north of Berlin. On the
20 April, between Stettinand Schwedt, Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front attacked the northern flank of Army Group Vistula, held by the III Panzer Army. By the 22 April, the 2nd Belorussian Front had established a bridgehead on the east bank of the Oder over 15 km deep, and was heavily engaged with the III Panzer ArmyZiemke see References page 92]
Cottbus-Potsdam Offensive Operation
In the south, the attack by the 1st Ukrainian Front was keeping to plan because
Army Group Centre(under the command of General Ferdinand Schörner) was not providing as much opposition as that faced by Zhukov's troops. 4th Panzer Army on the north flank of his formation was falling back under the weight of the 1st Ukrainian Front Attack. Two Panzerdivisions on the southern flank were retained in reserve for possible need in the centre of the Army Group front, and were not available for use to shore up the 4th Panzer Army. This was the turning point in the battle, because by nightfall the positions of both the Army Group Vistula and southern sectors of Army Group Centre were becoming untenable. Unless they fell back in line with the 4th Panzer Army, they faced envelopment. In effect, Konev's successful attacks on Schörner's poor defences to the south of the Seelow Heights positions were unhinging Heinrici's defence.Ziemke see References page 82,83] Ziemke see References page 76]
April 18, the 1st Ukrainian Front, having captured the city of Forst, was preparing to break out into the relatively flat terrain.Ziemke see References page 83]
Elements of the 3rd Guards, 3rd and 4th Guards Tank Armies, which were the Front's
Cavalry Mechanized Group, having exploited the breach in the 4th Panzer Army sector of the front, and turned north between Seydaand Jüterbogtowards a meeting with the 1st Belorussian Front west of Berlin.
Other Armies of the 1st Ukrainian Front'S southern flank attacked west the Americans that would be remembered later as the "meeting at
Torgau" when the 58th Guards Division of the 5th Guards Army, part of 1st Ukrainian Front, made contact with the US 69th Infantry Divisionof the First Army near Torgau, Germany on the ElbeRiver.Ziemke see References page 94] , reaching the Muldeby the 8 May.
ettin-Rostock Offensive Operation
25 Aprilthe 2nd Belorussian Front broke through 3rd Panzer Army's line around the bridgehead south of Stettinand crossed the Randow swamp on the Gramzowarea. They were now free to move west towards the British 21st Army Group, and north towards the Baltic ports of Stralsundand Rostock.
By the end of 19 April, the German eastern front line north of Frankfurt around the Seelow and to the south around Frost had ceased to exist. These breakthroughs allowed the two Red Army Fronts to envelop large parts of the German 9th and 4th Panzer Armies in a large pocket 37km east of Frankfurt that attempted to follow the Oder-Spree Canal to Berlin. Attempts by the 9th Army to break out to the west would result in the
Battle of Halbe.Ziemke see References page 84]
The cost to the Red Army in making this initial breakthrough was very high. Between
1 Apriland 19 April, the Red Army lost over 2,807 tanks. During the same period, the Allies in the west lost 1,079 tanks. [ [http://www.feldgrau.com/april.html World War II Axis Military History Day-by-Day: April] 20 April 1945]
Eastern Front (World War II)
* Beevor, Antony. "Berlin: the Downfall, 1945", ISBN 0-670-88695-5
* Ziemke, Earl F. "Battle For Berlin: End Of The Third Reich", NY:Ballantine Books, London:Macdomald & Co, 1969.
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