- Timeline 191's Common Characters
Timeline-191is a fan name given to the history described in Harry Turtledove's alternate history novels.
A brief synopsis
This "parallel timeline" is named after
Robert E. Lee's Special Order No. 191, detailing the Army of Northern Virginia's invasion of the Union in September 1862 during the American Civil War. In reality the orders were lost and recovered by a Union soldier, allowing General George B. McClellanto surprise Lee and force the Battle of Antietam. In this fictional timeline that battle never occurs; Lee defeats the Army of the Potomac outside of Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, occupies Philadelphia and, with the interference of Britain and France, President Lincoln is forced to recognize the independence of the CSA.
In 1882, after the purchase of the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, President James Blaine of the United States declared war against the Confederacy. With the help of British and French forces, the United States lost the Second Mexican War, being forced to cede territory in Maine to Canada. After this defeat, the United States turned to Germany for military assistance and training, and the national mood of the U.S. changed to desire of revenge against the enemies that surrounded the U.S. — Canada, from where Britain invaded the U.S., and the Confederacy.
In 1914, following the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the Confederacy declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the United States then declared war on Confederacy. The Great War lasted for three years on the American continent, during which there were an estimated 1,500,000 dead on the U.S. side alone. The CSA suffered a third of the USA's casualties, and Canada is rumored to have casualties totaling one-fourth of its population. When it was over, the U.S. occupied all of Canada save Québec (which became an independent country), and seized large portions of Confederate land.
The defeated Confederate States were wracked by political and economic turmoil. The Freedom Party, under Jake Featherston, gained power in 1934 and the Confederacy began to rearm to take on the U.S. In 1941, Featherston ordered an invasion of the U.S. and the Second Great War began.
The Confederate invasion of Ohio was highly successful. By 1942, the Confederate forces reached the shores of Lake Erie, cutting the U.S. in two. The only connections between the eastern and western U.S. were by air, in range of Confederate fighters; over the Great Lakes, or by road and rail through Occupied Canada. The Confederate forces then moved to capture Pittsburgh, the U.S.'s biggest industrial city. To cover their flanks, Mexican Army divisions provided security. U.S. forces held on to Pittsburgh in house-to-house fighting, and then slashed through the Mexican screening forces to encircle the Confederate forces in Pittsburgh, who surrendered in February 1943.
Following the defeat of the Confederates in Pittsburgh, United States forces drove the invading forces out of Ohio and Indiana, invading Kentucky and then crossing into Tennessee. In August 1943, Chattanooga was seized in part by an airborne assault on Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain. In the west, a smaller U.S. force moved on Snyder, Texas, which was where Camp Determination, the largest Confederate extermination camp, lay. The United States called on the Confederacy to surrender; President Featherston responded by launching ballistic missiles on Philadelphia, the de facto capital of the U.S.
Despite this sign of Confederate defiance, U.S. forces continued to advance. General Morrell's army threatened Atlanta, forcing a Confederate evacuation of the city; he then moved east to the Atlantic coast and north through South Carolina. Birmingham was the target of another U.S. offensive, while Richmond finally fell to U.S. forces early in 1944. By then, the Confederates had a new weapon: the superbomb.
The first use of the superbomb appeared in the European war, when German aircraft dropped one on Petrograd. The British, who were working on the weapon as well, provided assistance to the Confederacy, which used infiltrators in U.S. uniforms to sneak a superbomb into Philadelphia. The U.S. retaliated by superbombing Newport News, where they hoped Featherston was located, and Charleston, the city that started the War of Secession.
Featherston and his key leaders sought to flee to Arkansas, where they could be the focus of a guerrilla movement against the U.S. occupation; however, his plane was shot down and he was killed by a black guerrilla, named Cassius. Vice-President Donald Partridge, elevated to the Presidency, surrendered unconditionally to the U.S., ending the existence of a separate Confederate States of America.
Germany next superbombed Paris, while the British superbombed Hamburg. The German retaliation hit London, Norwich, and Brighton; the British retaliation with its second and last superbomb fell short when a turbo fighter downed the bomber.
Books in the series
How Few Remain" (1997) - "HFR"
*"" (1998) - "GW:AF"
*"" (1999) - "GW:WH"
*"" (2000) - "GW:B"
*"" (2001) - "AE:BI"
*"" (2002) - "AE:CCH"
*"" (2003) - "AE:VO"
*"" (2004) - "SA:RE"
*"" (2005) - "SA:DE"
*"" (2006) - "SA:G"
*"" (2007) - "SA:ID"
Historical characters from Timeline 191
Abdul Mejid II
Abdul Mejid IIbecame the Sultanof the Ottoman Empire sometime after the Great War. He was responsible for continuing the Armenian genocidethrough the 1920s. Despite protests from the United States and Germany, the Sultan continued the killings until there were few remaining Armenians left in Turkey.
Michael Alexandrovichis the Grand Duke (and later Emperor) of Russia. With the Red Russian Revolt smashed, and the tsarist government still in control of a post-Great War Russia, "Grand Duke Michael" took the throne as Michael II. He joined his allies in 1941 to wage war against the Central Powers. He condemned the German atomic bomb attack on Petrograd, the city of which he had escaped prior to the attack, but later was forced to request an armistice from Germany and to relinquish the throne.
During the Great War,
Doroteo Arango(known by the " nom de guerre" "Pancho Villa" in our timeline) was the Radical Liberal presidential candidate in the 1915 elections. He promised he would fight the war against the United States even harder than Woodrow Wilson did. He is also the first non-white candidate to seriously run for the presidency of the Confederacy and showed the wartime strains on the ruling Whig Party, as the war dragged on and the United States' numbers and the Red Rebellion started to strain the Confederates. Interestingly enough, he was not opposed due to his ethnicity (Mixed "Mestizo" Mexican), only his political views. The Mexican Revolutionin which our timeline's Pancho Villa had a major role has its counterpart in the Republican revolt against the Habsburg Emperors of this timeline's Mexico, which is crushed with the help of Freedom Party stalwarts. However, in the Confederate-annexed parts of Mexico, it is the Freedom Party itself which mobilises the peasants to overthrow the centuries-old rule of the big landowners.
Baum, L. Frank
Despite the change in the course of history,
L. Frank Baumstill becomes a children's author. Only his book " Queen Zixi of Ix" is mentioned by name, but because the book is an offshoot of the "Wizard of Oz" series, we can assume he still wrote his most famous book.
Carl Bernsteinis in charge of a U.S. Army counterintelligence squadron that specializes in detecting wiretaps. He is sent to check Congresswoman Flora Blackford's office for bugs. Among his team are a 'Bob' and 'Dick'—possibly H. R. Haldemanand Richard Nixon. However, this is an obvious anachronism, as the Bernstein of our timeline was not born until 1944. Although both Nixon and Haldeman served in the Second World War, the Sgt. Bernstein connection is likely just a joke on Turtledove's part.
Hugo Blackwas the Whig Party's Vice-Presidential nominee in 1933 during the Freedom electoral sweep. He ran with James Longstreet's grandson, and was caught in a riot against Freedom Party stalwarts during the 1932 Election Riots. The Longstreet-Black ticket lost in a landslide to the Featherston-Knight ticket.
Blaine, James G.
James G. Blainewas the second and last Republican president of the United States. He was also known as the only other president to start a war (over the CSA's purchase of the states of Chihuahua and Sonora, giving the Confederacy a Pacific port) and to lose the war as well. At the end of Second Mexican War, Blaine started the U.S. tradition of Remembrance Day and also started the alliance with the German Empire, which developed into the Quadruple Alliance (The Central Powers) of the Great War.
In this timeline,
Humphrey Bogartstill became a movie actor. He starred in the movie "The Maltese Elephant", which is an analog of our timeline's " The Maltese Falcon" ("The Maltese Elephant" is also the name of a short story in Harry Turtledove's short story collection "Counting Up, Counting Down"). Armstrong Grimes thought of Bogart when he learned that his aunt Clara was marrying someone named Humphrey Baxter.
There is no mention of
Denmarktaking any part in either of the Great Wars, and it seems to have succeeded in maintinaing its neutrality. However, Niels Bohris mentioned as having been persuaded by Einstein to come over to Germany and take part in its atomic weapons program.
Booth, John Wilkes
With the South having gained its independence, Booth's political sympathies are fulfilled. He and his brother remain popular stage actors into the 1880s.
Borah, William Edgar
Herbert Hoover's running mate (Hoover became president after president-elect Calvin Coolidge died and did not have a vice president) in the 1936 election,
William Edgar Borahhad even some of the most loyal Democrats saying that his vice presidential opponent, Charles La Follette, would make a better VP.
Robert Bordenbecomes Prime Minister of Canadaduring the Great War years in both our history and Turtledove's novels. When Canada was ceded to the U.S. after the war, his government was ejected from the occupied territory.
Following the U.S. defeat in the Second Mexican War, John Brown became a national hero. He was not seen so after the War of Secession. Many towns raised memorials to John Brown because of his attacks on the 'slavocrats' in Virginia ("He saw the coiled serpent and attacked it!"), particularly in Kansas.
Known only as "Mordecai" in the series, Mordecai "Three Finger" Brown, instead of becoming a
Hall of Famepitcher, was a crewman on the "USS Dakota" during the Great War. Sam Carsten noted how Mordecai could work as if he had ten fingers, instead of eight, which was the result of a childhood accident. By 1934, Mordecai was the foreman at a Los Angeles construction company; one of his employees was Chester Martin, who had moved from Toledo as a result of the Business Collapse. By the late 1930s, however, Mordecai lost many of his workers, including Martin, as a result of a worker's strike.
A Socialist Congressman from Missouri,
Clarence Cannonbecomes Speaker of the Houseduring the Smith Administration.
Known by his first name only,
Fidel Castrois a young leader of an anti-Freedom Party group in Confederate Cuba, working closely with the United States which sends him clandestine shipments of arms and ammunition.
A Confederate Navy sailor,
Jimmy Carterwas on leave and found himself informally in charge of the defense of his hometown of Plains, Georgiawhen the black rebels raided the town. He was killed by Jonathan Moss in front of his mother, "Miss Lillian".
Instead of becoming notorious in the baseball world for his attitude towards Jackie Robinson, Ben Chapman serves in the Freedom Party guards as a Chief Assault Band Leader (a captain in Army ranking). His first and only appearance in the books is when he shows up at Camp Dependable in the dead of night to drop off Willy Knight as a political prisoner.
Lon Chaney, Sr.appeared as a silent movie star in "The Phantom of the Catacombs", which was possibly an analog of our timeline's " The Phantom of the Opera."
Winston Churchill, in this timeline as in the real one, was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He leads his nation into the Second Great War on what appears to be a platform of rearmament, restoration of the British Empire's former borders, and a military alliance with France and Russia aimed at reversing the German Reich's dominant position in the world.
Although he was a member of the Conservative Party, his government's actions were strongly influenced by Silver Shirt leader Oswald Mosley, who wielded much greater power and influence in the right-leaning revanchist Britain. In our timeline Mosley's
British Union of Fascistswere known as Blackshirts, though Turtledove may be referencing the American fascist group linked to Bruno Hauptmannand the LindberghBaby case. It is unknown how his half-American heritage has influenced his relationship with the USA or whether his mother was still Jennie Jerome, born in the Cobble Hill section of Brooklyn.
Churchill authorized the British superbomb attack on Hamburg, and retaliated to the German superbomb attacks on London, Norwich, and Brighton by sending a plane with a second superbomb to attack Germany. However, the plane was shot down over Belgium, all but ending Britain's chances to defeat Germany. Churchill was then ousted as Prime Minister in a no-confidence vote, and was succeeded by Horace Wilson, who sought a cease-fire with Germany.
Samuel Clemensdoes not become famous in this timeline as the novelist, travel writer, and essayist Mark Twain. Here he has lost his family's valuable land in Tennessee, and settles down with a family in San Francisco where he becomes the editor of the "San Francisco Morning Call", known for his very sarcastic war editorials in the 1880s during the Second Mexican War.
Clemens had children in this world, just as he had in real life. Unlike our world, one of his offspring grew up to have a famous life in the journalism industry: Ophelia Clemens. It was never revealed whatever happened to his other child, Orion.
General Michael Collins lead a rebellion against the British Empire during the Great War, supported by the United States and Germany, and became first president of the
Republic of Irelandwhen this country achieved independence in 1917. In the early 1920s Collins lead the Irish Army against a pro-British Protestant uprising in Ulsterand suppressed it with the help of American and German warships.
Calvin Coolidgewas the Democratic governor of Massachusettsand then the Democratic nominee for president in 1928. He lost that election to Hosea Blackford, and when he called Blackford to concede the race, he warned him that a "bull market going as high as it is, will fall". Blackford thought it was just sour grapes and paid no heed. When Coolidge's words came true in 1929 and the Socialists and Blackford were blamed for the crash, he was nominated on the Democratic ticket again in 1932 with Herbert Hoover as his running mate. He won in a landslide, but died soon after his victory over Blackford. Hoover took his place as President-elect.
Congressman Jim Curley of Massachusetts was the Socialist Party's candidate for Vice President in the 1944 election. Flora Blackford questioned this choice because of his role in the Boston Socialist political machine, though she figured the Kansas City Democratic machine was more corrupt. The Socialist ticket of Charles La Follete and Curley lost to the Democratic ticket of Tom Dewey and Harry Truman.
Custer, George Armstrong
In this timeline,
George Custerwas not killed fighting Indians in 1876, as this smaller United States appears to have attempted to salve its wounded national pride following the War of Secessionby unleashing a much larger US Army upon the Native American tribes, thus compressing the conquest of the Great Plains into what appears to be a much shorter timescale. He served in Utah and Montana during the Second Mexican War (where he met Theodore Roosevelt). His forces helped defeat General Gordon's invasion of Montana (after the cease-fire, Canadians complained.) In the Great War, he was a lieutenant general in the United States Army and commanded the First Army forces in Tennessee. He was personally vain, using peroxide to bleach his grey hair and mustache despite his advanced age. As a Great War commander, he was unsuited for trench warfare, insisting on mounting large assaults on enemy lines instead of winning by attrition. However, his strategies were perfectly suited for "barrels," the timeline's term for tanks. Once they were introduced in force he crafted the " Barrel Roll Offensive," an armored breakthrough which ultimately won the Great War for the U.S.
Following the war, Custer was appointed to command the occupation forces in Canada, where he survived a few assassination attempts. Custer was forced into retirement following the election of Upton Sinclair as President. He was buried next to Theodore Roosevelt near Robert E. Lee's house in Arlington, Virginia.
Tom Custer, in this timeline, also was not killed in 1876 fighting Indians. He fought along his brother George during the Second Mexican War in both Utah and
Montana. In 1881, Tom was killed during the fighting in Montana; this led to his brother George developing a lifelong hatred of the Canadians.
Despite his Southern origins,
Josephus Danielsserved as Secretary of the U.S. Navy during the Great War. A destroyer escort was named after him in the Second Great War. (It is unknown why he is on the USA's side, and it is commonly believed to be an error on the part of author Harry Turtledove).
With no Southern states to interfere with the teaching of evolution,
Clarence Darrowpracticed criminal law in the United States. He was famous enough to convince the State of Kentucky (and the Kentucky State Police head Luther Bliss) that it was wrong in holding Cincinnatus Driver on trumped up charges.
Davis, Richard Harding
Richard Harding Daviswas a journalist and war correspondent in this timeline as well as ours. He was famous for coverage of the Hispano-Japanese War of 1905, and was a thorn in the side of General George Armstrong Custer. He died of a heart attack in 1916 observing the trench fighting in the Great War.
Debs, Eugene V.
Eugene V. Debswas one of the first Socialists to be elected to Congress after the split of the Republican Party. He was the Socialist Party candidate for President in 1908, 1912 and 1916. He ran unsuccessfully for president against Teddy Roosevelt twice, and was a strong opponent of U.S. involvement in the Great War.
Dewey, Thomas E.
Thomas Deweywas governor of New York when he received the Democratic nomination for President in 1944. He and his running mate Harry Trumandefeated the incumbent Charles La Follete. His victory is partially attributed to pointing out that the CSA was able to regain strength and attack the United States on the watch of three Socialist Presidents. His might be intended to parallel Clement Attlee's surprising landslide victory over Winston Churchillat the end of the Second World War in our timeline.
Eduard Dietlof the Austro-Hungarian army was an observer attached to Irving Morrell's unit during the 1916 campaign in the Canadian Rockies.
Frederick Douglasswas still trying to tell the United States of the suffering of the African-American slaves in the Confederacy twenty years after the War of Secession. His pleas were heard only by the small minority of freedmen in the USA and a handful of whites. He also, ironically, becomes one of the first people (in his mind) to approve of the "Revenge" mindset that the United States picked up in the Second Mexican War in fighting the CSA.
Marcel Duchamp, in this timeline, is still a famous artist, but this time his appeal in North America is limited to the upper-crust of the Confederacy. He tried to have an affair with Anne Colleton, and at least one of his works was destroyed in the burning of Marshlands Plantation during the 1915 Red Rebellion.
Albert Einsteinis a German physicist who was believed to have been working on an atomic bomb project in Europe. Along with several other leading German and Austro-Hungarian physicists, Einstein disappeared from public view in 1942. Not long afterwards, the United States, along with Germany and Austria-Hungary, were suspected of beginning atomic bomb programs. Since in this world Germany never became Nazi and there were no persecutions of Jews, he has no problem in contributing to the German war effort, especially as the war begins with Germany being attacked and invaded.
W.C. Fieldsstill becomes a film comic, and retains his trademark line "All things considered, I'd rather be in Philadelphia," perhaps inspired by the city becoming the de facto capital of the USA.
Bradley Fiskecommanded the US Navy in the Battle of the Three Navies, fighting the Japanese and British to a draw and frustrating their efforts to retake the Sandwich Islands from the United States.
Forrest, Nathan Bedford III
In this timeline, the great-grandson of Nathan Bedford Forrest was the head of the Confederate General Staff. Instead of airplane warfare,
Nathan Bedford Forrest III, was a tank expert. Forrest was valued by Featherston because he was unafraid to tell the President the truth about how the war was going, instead of being a yes manand only telling him what he wanted to hear. When an increasingly stubborn Featherston rejects Forrest's advice to cut short the Pittsburgh Campaign, thus dooming Patton's entire army of irreplaceable veterans to death or surrender, he begins plotting with Clarence Potter based on concerns about Featherston's sanity and whether new leadership was needed, for Forrest fears a Confederate loss and what the Yankees would do if they defeated the Confederacy again.
With the Confederate war effort collapsing, Forrest attempted to execute a coup to oust Featherston in 1944, analogous to the
July 20 Plot, but was thwarted by the President. Forrest never revealed that he had ever discussed the failed coup with Potter. Eventually, Forrest was killed off for his attempt.
Foulke, William Dudley
This American politician, lawyer, and poet appears at the beginning of "How Few Remain". Before the war starts William Foulke is an infantry captain of the United States Army.
Jeb Stuartwonders what a stuck-up young man is doing out west. He reappears in 1915 as Irving Morrell's divisional commander in southeastern Kentucky.
Instead of becoming a Hall of Fame first baseman,
Jimmie Foxxwas a running back in the U.S. football league. His name was used as a password in Irving Morrell's army to identify Confederate spies.
James Garfieldis one of the Republican Party leaders who gather in Chicago to discuss the party's future. He is more conservative than former president Lincoln and wishes not to make the party more radical.
Lou Gehrigplayed professional football in this timeline as a member of the Philadelphia Barrels team. When asked about earning more money than President Blackford, he responded, "I had a better year than he did," echoing Babe Ruth's comments about President Hoover in this timeline.
Geronimoled a band of Apache warriors into an alliance with Jeb Stuart's army during the Second Mexican War. The alliance would not outlast the war. He led a rebellion against the Confederates following a dispute in territory occupied in New Mexico. During this, one of Geronimo's men shot and killed Stuart, which consequently led the Confederate Army to all but wipe the Apache tribes out.
Barry Goldwaterwas a Democratic Congressman from New Mexico, noted for his anti-Mormonspeeches and rabble rousing during the days and months leading up to Second Great War.
Grant, Ulysses S.
Ulysses Grant, in the twenty years after the War of Secession, is a broken down, poor man. Known for his victories in a war the United States had few in, he was one of the few people left in the United States who supported the plight of the African-Americans in both North American republics. Grant died from complications from alcoholism.
Instead of becoming a Hall of Fame first baseman for the Detroit Tigers,
Hank Greenbergwas a prominent U.S. running back. His name was used as a code in Irving Morrell's army to prevent Confederate spies from infiltrating U.S. lines.
Joseph F. Guffeywas the Speaker of the House during the Smith and La Follette administrations. When Al Smith was killed in the Confederate bombing raid of Philadelphia in 1942, Guffey announced the President's death to a joint session of Congress.
Lord Halifaxwas the British ambassador to the Confederate States during the Second Great War. He presented to C.S. President Jake Featherston materials on the British superbomb project, which possibly helped the Confederacy develop their own superbomb.
Halsey, William Frederick Jr.
A Rear Admiral of the Southern Shore Squadron,
Bill Halseywas part of the MacArthur plan to land and attack at the mouth of the James until General Abner Dowling contacted the War Department to stop that plan. From Dowling's statement on him, it seems he is as reckless as MacArthur.
Hannibal Hamlin, former vice president of the United States becomes secretary of state in the Blaine administration and is chosen to negotiate a peaceful resolution to the conflict leading up to the Second Mexican War, a task in which he was not successful.
Known only as "Ernie," the novelist
Ernest Hemingwaywas an ambulancedriver in the U.S. Army on the Québec front in the Great War (in our timeline Hemingway drove an ambulance in Italy during World War I), Ernest was strafed by a British aircraft and severely wounded in the groin. After the war, his impotenceserved as a constant frustration. He ghost-wrote Sylvia Enos' book, "I Sank Roger Kimball", and was involved in an affair with his client. He accidentally shoots her when attempting suicide while he is drunk. He then shoots himself in remorse. Unlike in our timeline, he never becomes a prominent author.
Because of the German Empire's victory in this world,
Adolf Hitleris a sergeant in the German Army. He holds the Iron Cross, First Class. Morrell met him once as an orderly to Colonel Heinz Guderian, who was on an inspection tour in Kamloops, British Columbia. Morrell thought that he was very much like Jake Featherston, but with a hatred for Jews and Slavs rather than Africans. However, nobody pays him much regard with his much lowlier position. The obvious implication is that because Germany won World War I, Hitler remained a nobody and never rose to power. It should be pointed out that Hitler is never mentioned by name in CCH, but the author has acknowledged his identity.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell
Oliver Wendell Holmesbecomes Chief Justice of the United States rather than associate justice, as he does in our timeline. He is one of the last surviving War of Secession veterans and manages to live longer than even General Custer. Holmes is a staunch Democratic supporter, who is very displeased in 1920 at having to administer the oath of office to Upton Sinclair, the first Socialist President. He dies in 1935 during Herbert Hoover's administration. He is replaced as Chief Justice by Cicero Pittman in time for Al Smith's inauguration in 1937.
Herbert Hooverwas part of the Coolidge-Hoover Democratic ticket that defeated the Blackford-Johnson Socialist ticket during the Democratic sweep in 1932. When Coolidge died before he got into office, Hoover took over. The only thing his term was known for was making the situation in Kentucky, Houston (West Texas), Sequoyah, and Utah worse. He ended the Pacific War with a status quo ante bellum"peace" with Japan and allowed Jake Featherston to begin rebuilding the Confederate Army in the face of the "black rebellion". Hoover was also derided for not doing anything to help the Depression. Because of this, the Democrats were defeated with a Socialist sweep the Congressional elections of 1934 and he lost the presidential race to Socialist Al Smith in 1936.
Bob Hopeis a comic seen entertaining the troops in Occupied Ohio. He was booed offstage for his non realistic war jokes and for not being "Satchmo and the Rhythm Aces".
Hubert Humphreyis referred to as the "pharmacist from Minneapolis." He wisely decides not to move his business to Rosenfield, Manitoba, where the local general store (owned by an American) had been bombed by Mary MacGregor several years before.
Jackson, Thomas J. "Stonewall"
Because of the Confederate victory in 1862,
Stonewall Jacksondid not die in 1863 as he did in this timeline. In the twenty years from the War of Secession to the Second Mexican War, Jackson became the head of the Confederate General Staff in the Longstreet Administration. His brilliant tactics in the Second Mexican War led to victory for the Confederacy. Also helping the Confederate cause was his decision to let the captured Frederick Douglassgo free, after a memorable debate between the two showing some grudging mutual respect - a decision which eventually helped the Confederacy cement British and French support for its cause. Later on, Jackson became a Whig president of the Confederate States, despite his insistence that he didn't involve himself in politics in How Few Remain.
Hiram Johnsonwas the Socialist nominee for vice-president in both the 1928 and 1932 elections. He and Hosea Blackford won the 1928 election over Calvin Coolidge; the victory was clinched after the Socialists won Johnson's home state of California. He was present at the Socialist party rally that was held on the same day that Japan raided Los Angeles. Blackford and Johnson were easily defeated in 1932 by Coolidge and Herbert Hoover.
Kennedy, Joseph P. Sr.
Joseph Kennedy, in this timeline, was a Democratic Party organizer in Boston, Massachusetts. Although married to Rose Kennedy and the father of Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., he attempted to seduce Sylvia Enos, who was a minor heroine for killing Roger Kimball, and was campaigning for him at his political rallies.
After the Second Great War, Kennedy helped obtain the discharge of George Enos Jr., from the Navy to allow him to return to civilian life.
Kennedy, Joseph Jr.
Joseph Kennedy, Jr. appears in this timeline as a fighter pilot, serving in the same squadron as Jonathan Moss during
La Follette, Charles
The fourth Socialist President of the United States,
Charles La Follettewas vice-president of the United States until the death of President Smith in 1942. LaFollete also promised to keep the agreement between his office and Flora Blackford on the African-American holocaust in return for her keeping quiet about the atomic bomb project in western Washington State.
After the U.S. made significant progress in 1943, invading Kentucky, Tennessee, and capturing Camp Determination, La Follette demanded Jake Featherston's surrender. Featherston responded by firing two rockets into Philadelphia.
As the war was drawing to a close, La Follete issued an executive order barring discrimination in the armed forces on the basis of race. He also pledged to introduce civil rights legislation into Congress to protect all blacks under U.S. jurisdiction.
Though he led the U.S. to victory in 1944, La Follette was defeated by Tom Dewey in the Presidential election later that year. This might be intended to parellel the real world defeat of
Winston Churchillat the close of the Second World War by Clement Attlee.
Fiorello LaGuardiais elected governor of New York on the Socialist ticket and attends the New York City Remembrance Day parade shortly before the beginning of WW II.
Lamar, Lucius Q. C.
Lucius Lamaris the vice president of the Confederate States under James Longstreet. It is mentioned that Lamar would have acted as president should anything have happened to President Longstreet while he visited the war front in Kentucky.
Robert Lansingwas the United States Secretary of State at the conclusion of the Great War and was responsible for drafting the terms of the peace treaty with the Confederacy and setting policy for Occupied Canada.
Hunter Liggettreplaced General Leonard Woodas Army Chief of Staff under President Upton Sinclair, though he appeared unenthusiastic about some of the Socialists' more unrealistic policies.
In this timeline,
Abraham Lincolnwas a one-term president who was defeated in the 1864 election, and who was generally remembered as "a failure". He was not assassinated and was still alive in the 1880s, working as a public speaker. Feeling that the Republican party was no longer true to its original roots, he led a faction of the party to break off and join the Socialist party with Marxist activist Friedrich Sorge, which eventually became the major opposition to the Democrats and one of the two main parties in the American political system.
Lincoln, Mary Todd
Mary Todd Lincolnwas the wife of former President Abraham Lincoln. As her husband was not assassinated in 1865, she did not suffer from mental illness as she did in our timeline. In the late 1870s, Mary Lincoln died of typhus; her husband contracted the disease, but survived.
Soviet foreign minister and ambassador to the United States in the real world; in Turtledove's timeline
Maxim Litvinovhas apparently immigrated to the United States to escape the Russian Tsar's anti-Semitic pogromsand possibly the defeat of the Reds in the Russian Civil War. He appears briefly as an officer in one of the US Army's Chemical Weapons units. Litvinov (or Litvinoff, as his name is spelled in the book) is described as being enamored with his grisly work.
After the assassination of their sibling, we learn that one of Governor Huey Long's brothers is involved in some sort of machine gun "accident" and the other is imprisoned at "Camp Dependable" outside Alexandria, Louisiana for his brother's non-Freedom Party politics. Although in our timeline Huey Long had three brothers, George, Julius and
Earl Long, in Timeline-191 he has only two.
In this timeline,
Huey Longwas a Radical Liberal governor of Louisiana in the Confederate States. Like Jake Featherston, he used strong-arm tactics to suppress opposition and control that state, erected prison camps for political opponents, but did not resort to anti-black racist demagoguery. He proved to be a danger to the Freedom Party in the '32 elections and afterwards, where the Freedom Party was under attack in his state, and planned to run for president once Featherston ended his term (at the time, the clause in the Confederate constitution restricting a president to a single term was still in force). He was later killed by an assassin of the Freedom Party in 1938 after getting a warning about not following Jake Featherston's orders from Anne Colleton. This assassination allowed Featherston to have the entire Confederacy under his control. The conquest of Louisiana from Long and his followers is roughly the analogue of Hitler's Austrian Anschluss.
James Longstreetwas a victorious Confederate general turned president of the CSA in the early to mid 1880s. Although having a reputation as being an opportunist, his term was known for the second defeat of the United States in the Second Mexican War and the manumission of the slaves as the price of British and French alliance for help in the Second Mexican War. Longstreet also prevented, with Stonewall Jackson's help, a planned rebellion by Wade Hampton.
Lyons, Richard Bickerton Pemell
Richard Lyons was a British diplomat who was sent to Washington after the Battle of Camp Hill to advise Abraham Lincoln that Britain and France were set to offer recognition to the Confederate States, and that if the U.S. did not do the same, Britain would defend the C.S. by use of military. Lord Lyons also envisioned a time where both the U.S. and C.S. would "stand together, [as] a pair of sturdy brothers," which never happened at any point of the Confederacy's independence between 1862 and 1944.
Mahan, Alfred Thayer
Alfred Mahanwas a two-term Democratic president from 1889 to 1897. During his time in office, Mahan threatened to declare war on the Confederate States because of a proposal by the CSA to build a canal in Nicaragua in order to reach their Pacific port in Guaymas, Sonora, without having to travel around South America. After receiving the threat of war, the CSA backed down in their attempt to build the canal. Sam Carsten mentions that he might be the best President the country had ever had after Theodore Roosevelt.
George Mahon was a Freedom Party Congressman from the State of Houston who was among the Congressmen (from Houston and Kentucky) who demanded that plebiscites be held in order to return to the Confederate States (Houston had joined the U.S. in 1917). He eventually got his wish, and on January 7, 1941, Houston, along with Kentucky, was returned to the CSA by popular vote, and was restored to the state of Texas.
Known as King Charles XI,
Charles Maurraswas the head of the " Action Française" movement in post-Great War France. After the overthrow of the French Third Republicin the 1930s, Charles XI took the movement's position to reclaim Alsace-Lorrainefrom Germany. When Kaiser Wilhelm II died on 4 June 1941, Charles XI formally demanded the return of Alsace-Lorraine. After Wilhelm's successor Friedrich Wilhelm V denied this request, France, supported by Britain and the Confederate States, declared war on Germany, and the Second Great War began. Charles XI was killed in the superbomb attack on Paris in 1944 and was succeeded by King Louis XIX. The character is not specifically identified as Maurras, but it is the general consensusamongst fans that he and King Charles XI are one in the same.
Edward C. Moran, Jr.of Maine is a Democrat who debates Flora Blackford on whether or not the United States should interfere with the treatment of blacks in the CSA.
McReynolds, James Clark
James Clark McReynoldswas the last Chief Justice of the Confederate Supreme Court. He played a key role in the ruling allowing Burton Mitchel to run again out of fear of the Freedom Party after the Hampton V assassination. Later he was noted for his battles in the early months of the first Featherston administration, most importantly the "torpedoing" of the River and Dam Act. This led to the Featherston Administration finding a way to abolish the Supreme Court before it could strike down any more Freedom laws, and because Featherston wanted to settle accounts with the Court for its allowing Mitchel to run for re-election.
Attorney General Ferdinand Koenig pounced on the precedent of the CSA not having a Supreme Court for the first five years of existence, and forced McReynolds to admit to the legality of that precedent as prelude to having the Supreme Court knocked down, to great fanfare across the Confederacy's white population. Threatened with his life by Featherston if he trifled with the abolition of the Supreme Court, McReynolds retired into private life. The Confederate president then went on the radio to declare: "James McReynolds has made his decision, now let him enforce it!"
Molotov, Vyacheslav ("The Hammer")
Also known as "The Hammer", this is
Vyacheslav Molotovfrom our world, another Red holdout (in the failed rebellion) in the Volga area, trying to defeat the Tsarist forces. By 1941, the Tsarist forces have all but defeated the Red Russians.
Oswald Mosleyis the leader of the Silver Shirts, a fascist movement analogous to the British Union of Fascists, except in that our timeline has Mosley's thugs known as Blackshirts, and the Silver Shirts as an American fascist group linked to Bruno Hauptmannand the LindberghBaby case. Unlike in our timeline, Mosley and several members of the Union gain seats in the British parliament. The Silver Shirts create a noisy minority, but it is small enough for Parliament to keep Mosley and his followers from taking control of Britain. Nevertheless, their influence on the government grows stronger, to the point where the line between the Silver Shirts and the very government of Britain became severely blurred. Winston Churchill named Moseley Chancellor of the Exchequer to mollify the Silver Shirts. During the later conflict with Germany in 1941, Mosley was also given a position as Minister of War.
Shortly after Germany shot down a British plane carrying the second British superbomb in 1944, he was ousted as Chancellor of the Exchequer in a no-confidence vote.
Although not mentioned by name, Flora Blackford tries to recall the Italian politician who had pledged to make all the trains in his country on time, but had little public support. The real
Benito Mussoliniclaimed to have done this during his rule of Italy; actually, improvements in the train system predated Mussolini, and the trains were as unpunctual as before.
Wright Patmanwas the Governor of Texas during the Second Great War. In 1944, with the U.S. close to defeating the C.S., Patman seceded his state from the Confederacy and declared an independent Republic of Texaswith himself as President. His first act was to obtain an armistice with the U.S., who immediately recognized his nation.
Mason Patrickwas a senior aviator in the U.S. Army air service and served on the Canadian front in the Great War.
Patton, George S.
George S. Patton, C.S. Army, was in charge of the Confederate armored forces (Army of Kentucky) in Operation Blackbeard in Ohio and the attack on Pittsburgh. He had many of the same character traits as our timeline's Patton, including attention to the appearance of his men and the effective use of armor. Instead of being the first American general to integrate his combat formations, this Patton is an unabashed racist and supporter of the Freedom Party. Patton was evacuated from the pocket at Pittsburgh before it fell in February 1943. He unsuccessfully tried to hold the U.S. Army out of Kentucky and Tennessee.
This included an incident where he slapped a soldier suffering from battle fatigue. He would have shot the soldier save that other soldiers around them threatened to shoot Patton on the spot. He was reprimanded for this incident by President Featherston, who promised the average soldier a fair shake.
Patton's aggressiveness was checked by General Morrell. When he switched tactics to fight a delaying action in Chattanooga, he was bypassed by a U.S. airborne assault on the hills overlooking the city. Because of this, the U.S. drove to Atlanta, disgracing him in Jake Featherston's eyes.
By 1944, Patton was forced to flee Atlanta and head into Alabama. With the U.S. ravaging his army, Patton was eventually forced to surrender in Birmingham. After giving a farewell address to his forces, Patton was taken into captivity.
Pershing, John "Black Jack"
John Pershingis the commanding general of the US Second Army and rival of George Custer's First Army in the Great War. After the Socialist victory over the Democrats, he became military governor of Utah. Later on during his term in Utah, a Mormonsniper killed him, thus elevating Colonel Dowling, commandant of Salt Lake City, to military governor of Utah.
Rather than being appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1912, as he was in our timeline,
Mahlon Pitneygoes to Canada to preside over trials in occupied country.
Pope Pius XII
Pius XIIwas Pope in this timeline as well as ours. He was criticized for not condemning the Turkish genocide of Armenians or the Russian pogroms against Jews, and it appeared that he likewise did not care about the Freedom Party's killing of the black population of the Confederate States. One character observes that Pius would have spoken out against human rights violations if the group being persecuted consisted mainly of Catholics.
John Pope was the commander of U.S. forces in Utah during the Second Mexican War. He was responsible for ordering the execution of several Mormon leaders during the attempted revolt in Utah. Pope also arrested Abraham Lincoln for allegedly having Mormon sympathies, but President Blaine ordered Lincoln's release.
Ronald Reagan, "Dutch", like this timeline's counterpart, was a sports announcer in Iowa between the wars. His favorite phrase in games is, "There he goes again."
Reed, Thomas Brackett
Thomas Brackett Reedwas a Democratic president sometime in the late 1890s. He was depicted on a fifty-cent coin used as currency during the Great War.
Rickover, Hyman G.
Hyman G. Rickover, U.S. Navy, appears in testimony to a House of Representatives committee, as an expert on submarines, on why the U.S. has not yet built copies of German fleet submarines.
Will Rogersis referred to as "that comic from Sequoyah." He is quoted as having said, "All I know is what I read in the newspapers."
Roosevelt, Franklin D.
Franklin D. Roosevelt, in this timeline, was Secretary of War in the Hoover administration and later Assistant Secretary of War under the Smith and LaFollette Administrations. He is not much in the public eye, but plays a key role at being in charge of the United States nuclear program at the Hanford site. Roosevelt was paraplegicand uses a wheelchair. He develops a kind of platonic affair with Flora Blackford. There is no mention of his being married in this timeline to Eleanor Roosevelt, who as wife of an obscure Assistant Secretary would have far less scope for her own activities than she did as First Lady in our timeline. Short before the end of the war Flora Balckford notices with concern that Roosevelt is "killing himself with overwork and smoking". After the fall of the Confederacy Roosevelt is not mentioned again, and the disposal of the Confederate nuclear program is left to General Abell rather than to him.
Teddy Rooseveltbecame a national figure for leading a volunteer cavalry unit, the Unauthorized Regiment, in the Second Mexican War, during which he developed an intense rivalry with George Custer. A member of the Democratic Party, he was President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Roosevelt was the first president to run for a third term, but he was ultimately defeated by Socialist Upton Sinclair. After his death in 1924, he was buried at Robert E. Lee's house in Arlington, West Virginia (which was annexed from Virginia after the Great War).
William Rosecranswas a lead general in the Second Mexican War. He was partly responsible for the U.S. defeat as he admitted to observers on the Kentucky front that he had no real strategy to defeat the Confederate States.
Russell, Richard Brevard Jr.
Richard Brevard Russell, Jr.was the Confederate Ambassador to the United States before the Second World War. He was kicked out of the U.S. after President Featherston kicked out the Confederacy's U.S. ambassador Jerry Voorhis from the C.S. as well.
von Schlieffen, Alfred
Alfred von Schlieffenwas a colonelin the German armyworking as a military attachébefore and during the Second Mexican War at the German embassy in the United States. His study of Robert E. Lee's encirclement of Washington, D.C.is said to be the inspiration for the Schlieffen Planof World War I.
Known in our world as
Louis Armstrong, in the Confederate States during the rise of the Freedom Party and the Featherston Administration, Sennacherib (a.k.a. Satchmo), was the leader of the popular band "Satchmo and the Rhythm Aces". He was forced by the Confederate government during Second Great War to play for Confederate troops in Ohio. Satchmo and his band were able to escape to U.S. lines at night after one of their shows. In Drive to the East, Satchmo and his band are trying to tell, with Flora Blackford, about the horrors the Featherston government is doing to African-Americans.
Eric Sevareidwas a radio broadcaster for U.S. Wireless Atlanta, which was established after the fall of Atlanta, possibly to counter Confederate Connie. After the death of Jake Featherston, Sevareid was one of the broadcasters who interviewed Cassius.
haw, Robert Gould
Robert Gould Shaw, the man who in our timeline led the 54th Massachusetts, one of the first all black regiments in the Civil War, ends up surviving through the War of Secession, though losing a hand in the process, and lives on until 1914 in Boston. He was depicted as an elderly racist with little money.
William Shireris a U.S. broadcaster who interviews Cassius Madison in his tour of the U.S. after killing Jake Featherston.
In this time line,
Shel Silversteinis an Army doctor assigned to Col. Morrel's force around Caldwell, Ohio. This version of Silverstein is most likely just an analog to the real one, since our version was born in 1930 and would have been around 17 during this time. Also this version was born in New York while ours was born in Chicago.
In this timeline,
Upton Sinclairwas the first Socialist President. He was elected over Teddy Roosevelt in the 1920 elections because of the work riots, his first acts were to slash the military budget, force General Custer into retirement and enact new labor laws. He was re-elected in 1924, where he and the Socialist Party take credit for the Roaring Twenties prosperity. Sinclair declined to run for a third term in 1928 and was succeeded in office by his vice-president, Hosea Blackford.
Unlike in our timeline,
Al Smithwas able to be elected as the third Socialist (and first Catholic) President in the 1936 election over Herbert Hoover and was elected again on his "He Kept Us out of War!" platform in 1940 over Democrat Robert Taft. He was known as the "Happy Warrior" since he tried everything to keep the United States out of war. But these proved to be horrific blunders as the effects of the Richmond Agreementproved in showing that the Confederacy was heading inevitably towards war with the United States. Smith was killed in his second term (1942) when Confederate bombers blew up parts of the Powel House and destroyed his bunker. Smith's character is an obvious parallel to Neville Chamberlain, who attempted, but failed, to prevent war in our timeline with a fascistregime through the use of appeasement.
Kate Smithwas a famous U.S. singer in this timeline as well as ours. In 1943, she sang "God Bless the Stars and Stripes" with backing by Satchmo and the Rhythm Aces.
ousa, John Philip
(GW:AF and AE:BI)
The marches of
John Philip Sousain this timeline were very popular in the United States. The Socialists despised him as a tool who substituted nationalist desires for vengeance for the class struggle, but respected his talents.
Joseph Stalinis nicknamed "The Man of Steel" in this world. The Red Revolution following the Great War failed and Stalin became a holdout in the Volga area near the city Tsaritsyn along with the "Hammer" ( Vyacheslav Molotov), deliberately ironic as in our timeline the city was known at the time as Stalingrad.
Harold Stassenwas peripherally mentioned as "the governor of Minnesota" as the Republican Party's candidate for President in the 1944 elections, carrying Minnesota, Wisconsin, and two of the other 35 states in three-way races against Socialist Charles LaFollette and Democrat Tom Dewey.
Seymour Stedmanwas a Socialist Congressman from Ohio. In the Socialist-majority Congress of 1919, he was elected Speaker of the House. Stedman became the first non-Democrat since 1881 to be elected as Speaker.
tuart, James Ewell Brown
Because of the CSA's victory in the War of Secession,
Jeb Stuartdid not die in 1864 as he did in this timeline. During the Second Mexican War, General Stuart arrived in the former Mexican provinces of Sonora and Chihuahua in order to ease their transition into C.S. territories (later states). Stuart was killed by an Apachesniper near the close of the war in 1882. His son Jeb Stuart Jr. (a person who had never known his father in real life) later became head of the Confederate War Department, and his (fictionalized) grandson Jeb Stuart III was a battery command officer on the Virginia front in the Great War (whereas the real Jeb Stuart III was a US air force general who was killed in action during World War II).
Robert Taftwas a Democratic Senator from Ohio who ran against Al Smith in the 1940 presidential election. Taft was narrowly defeated running his campaign on an anti-Freedom Party line and the refusal to permit the states of Kentucky, Houston to hold a plebisciteto return to the CSA. During the Second Great War, he and Flora Blackford became fast friends and political allies as Flora became more hawkish as the war went on. Taft dies in 1943, a victim of a suicide bomb attack in Philadelphia.
Taft, William Howard
William Howard Taftwas a Democratic Congressman from Ohio who served on the Transportation Committee during the later days of the Great War. He was on the same committee as Socialist congresswoman Flora Hamburger, and the two frequently disagreed on many political issues.
The Mormon leader John Taylor takes the opportunity to try to force the United States to recognize the believers' right to practice
polygamy. However, with the use of the new Gatling gunhis rebellion is quickly crushed and he becomes a fugitive, facing death along with the other Mormon leaders if he is caught. The Union army places a price on his head, but he is never captured.
N. Mattoon Thomas served as Undersecretary of War in the Sinclair Administration, often as Sinclair's hatchet man. He was responsible for informing General Custer of his forced retirement and for closing down the Barrel Works.
Strom Thurmondwas a Freedom Party Congressman from South Carolina. He is still as conservative in this timeline as he was in ours. Good on the "Negro question, but weaker elsewhere" was Anne Colleton's view on him. It was unknown if he died during the U.S. naval raid on Charleston in June 1941.
Tilden, Samuel J.
Samuel Tildenwas President of the United States from 1877 to 1881 in this timeline. He was nominated by the Democrats for reelection in 1880, but lost to Republican James G. Blaine. Tilden was defeated for not taking a hard line against the Confederate States and for ordering the removal of twelve stars (representing the former Union states in the CSA) from the U.S. flag.
Harry Trumanwas a Democratic Senator from Missouri who was selected by New York Governor Tom Dewey as the Democratic VP candidate in 1944. The Dewey-Truman ticket defeated the incumbent President Charles La Follette. In announcing the Democratic victory, Truman had a copy of the " Chicago Tribune" that had the headline "La Follete Beats Dewey" (referring to the infamous " Dewey Defeats Truman" headline in our timeline's 1948 election). Truman made an appearance in occupied Florida to speak to U.S. soldiers before his inauguration as Vice President.
Jerry Voorhiswas the United States ambassador to the Confederate States prior to the start of the Second World War. After delivering news to Jake Featherston that U.S. president Al Smith refused the latest C.S. territorial demands, the C.S. president told Voorhis to leave the country within 24 hours; soon after this meeting, Featherston gave authorization for Operation Blackbeardto commence.
Walker, George Herbert
Confederate Secretary of State during the Featherston Administration,
George Herbert Walkeris probably one of the few remaining old-liners to remain from the Whig Era into the Freedom Regime, since he is not considered to be part of the Freedom Party inner circle by Featherston. Walker is placed in charge of obtaining more soldiers from the Empire of Mexico to aid the Confederacy after General Morrell's attacks destroyed the first three divisions in the 1942 U.S. offensive in Ohio.
Henry A. Wallacewas the Secretary of the Interior under Al Smith. He was one of the few people who knew of the United States' plans to develop nuclear weapons during the Second Great War.
John Wayneis an actor known in this world under his real name, Marion Morrison. He played Theodore Roosevelt in a movie that recounted the details of the Battle of Montana in "How Few Remain".
Wilhelm IIwas the German Emperor and one of the main allies of the United States in World War I. "Kaiser Bill" was a popular character in the U.S. Many men wore a "Kaiser Bill" mustache in imitation of him. He lived until 1941, (as he did in this timeline) where his death and his son's coming to the throne and refusal to give France its lost territory back started Second Great War. He was the father of Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm V.
Wilhelm, Friedrich V
Friedrich Wilhelm V (the Crown Prince of Germany) became Kaiser of the German Empire in 1941, upon the death of his father,
Wilhelm II. He refused to return Alsace-Lorraine to the newly revived Kingdom of France and their British allies, which precipitated the Second Great War in Europe. He authorised the destruction of several targets with superbombs, including Petrograd, Parisand London.
Wendell Willkiewas the Republican nominee for president in the 1940 election. As the Republicans were a third party in this timeline, Willkie was not considered to seriously contend for the presidency against the Socialist incumbent Al Smith and the Democratic challenger Robert Taft.
Horace Wilson became the Prime Minister of Britain in 1944 in the wake of the ouster of Winston Churchill in a no-confidence vote. His first act as PM was to ask Germany for a cease-fire.
Woodrow Wilsonwas president of the Confederate States from 1910 to 1916. He led the CSA to war with the United States in the summer of 1914, following the US declaration of war on the Confederacy.
Walter Winchellwas a news reporter from New York who was one of those to interview Cassius after he shot Jake Featherston. During his interview with Winchell, Cassius found his accent difficult to understand.
Leonard Woodwas Chief of the General Staff of the U.S. Army during the Great War.
Characters in the Southern Victory series
Institutions in the Southern Victory (Timeline-191) series
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