William F. Albright


William F. Albright

William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891September 19/September 20, 1971) was an American archaeologist, biblical scholar, linguist and expert on ceramics. From the early twentieth century until his death, he was the dean of biblical archaeologists and the universally acknowledged founder of the Biblical archaeology movement. His student George Ernest Wright followed in his footsteps as the leader of that movement, while others, notably Frank Moore Cross and David Noel Freedman, became international leaders in the study of the Bible and the ancient Near East, including Northwest Semitic epigraphy and paleography. Albright is assured of a place in the history of the development of Middle Eastern archaeology.

Biography

Albright was born in Coquimbo, Chile, the eldest of six children of Amercian evangelical Methodist missionaries Wilbur Finley and Zephine Viola Foxwell Albright. He married Dr. Ruth Norton in 1921 and had four sons. He received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1916 and took a professorship there in 1927, remaining as W. W. Spence Professor of Semitic Languages from 1930 to his retirement in 1958. He was also the Director of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem, 1922-1929, 1933-1936, and did important archaeological work at such sites in Palestine as Gibeah (Tell el-Fûl, 1922) and Tell Beit Mirsim (1933-1936). [ [http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/a.htm Biographical notes, Library of the American Philosophical Society] ]

Albright became known to the public for his role in the authentication of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1948, [ [http://www.jhu.edu/~jhumag/0400web/32.html Dale Keiger, "The Great Authenticater", Johns Hopkins Magazine, 2000] ] but made his scholarly reputation as the leading theorist and practitioner of biblical archaeology, "that branch of archaeology that sheds light upon "the social and political structure, the religious concepts and practices and other human activities and relationships that are found in the Bible or pertain to peoples mentioned in the Bible." [ [http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/article_archaeology.html#17 Robert I. Bradshaw, "Archaeology and the Patriarchs", bibl.org] ] Albright was not, however, a biblical literalist, his "Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan", for example, putting forward the view that the religion of the Israelites had evolved from polytheism to a monotheism that saw God acting in history - a view fully in accordance with the documentary hypothesis and the mainstream opinions of the preceding two centuries of biblical criticism. [ [http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/JHS/reviews/review119.htm Comment in erview of Mark S. Smith's "The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel"] ]

Although primarily a biblical archaeologist, Albright was a polymath who made contributions in almost every field of Near Eastern studies: an example of his range is a BASOR 130 (1953) paper titled "New Light from Egypt on the Chronology and History of Israel and Judah," in which he established that Shoshenq I - the Biblical Shishak - came to power somewhere between 945 and 940 BC. A prolific author, his major works include "Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan," "The Archaeology of Palestine: From the Stone Age to Christianity," and "The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra". He also edited the Anchor Bible volumes on Jeremiah, Matthew, and Revelation.

Throughout his life Albright was honored with numerous awards, honorary doctorates, and medals, and was given the title "Worthy One of Jerusalem" - the first time the award had been given to a non-Jew. After his death, his legacy continued as a large number of scholars, inspired by his work, became specialists in the areas Albright had pioneered. The American Schools of Oriental Research is now known as the Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, in honor of Albright's exceptional contributions to the field. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5221/is_2005/ai_n19142063/pg_3 UXL Newsmakers, at Findarticles.com] ]

Influence and legacy

Albright's publication in the Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 1932, of his excavations of Tell Bir Mirsim, and further descriptions of the Bronze Age and Iron Age layers of the site in 1938 and 1943, marked a major contribution to the professional dating of sites based on ceramic typologies, one which is still in use today with only minor changes. "With this work, Albright made Palestinian archaeology into a science, instead of what it had formerly been: a digging in which the details are more or less well-described in an indifferent chronological framework which is as general as possible and often wildly wrong". [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5221/is_2005/ai_n19142063/pg_3 G.E. Wright, quoted in UXL Newsmakers, at Findarticles.com] ]

As editor of the Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research between 1931 and 1968, Albright exercised deep influence over both biblical scholarship and Palestinian archaeology, an influence further extended by his prolific writing and publishing (over 1,100 books and articles). [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5221/is_2005/ai_n19142063/pg_3 UXL Newsmakers, at Findarticles.com] ] Albright used this influence to advocate "biblical archaeology", in which the archaeologist's task is seen as being "to illuminate, to understand, and, in their greatest excesses, to "prove" the bible." [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-6682%28199501%2F04%292%3A85%3A3%2F4%3C464%3AD%22ADAB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage Lynn Tatum, review of William G. Dever "Recent Archaeological Discoveries and Biblical Research", The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Ser., Vol. 85, No. 3/4 (Jan. - Apr., 1995), pp. 464-466] , at JSTOR] . In this Albright's American Evangelical upbringing was clearly apparent. He insisted, for example, that "as a whole, the picture in Genesis is historical, and there is no reason to doubt the general accuracy of the biographical details" (i.e. of figures such as Abraham). Similarly he claimed that archaeology had proved the essential historicity of the book of Exodus, and the conquest of Canaan as described in the book of Joshua and the book of Judges. Nothing today is left of this approach amongst mainstream archaeologists: "His central theses have all been overturned, partly by further advances in Biblical criticism, but mostly by the continuing archaeological research of younger Americans and Israelis to whom he himself gave encouragement and momentum...The irony is that, in the long run, it will have been the newer "secular" archaeology that contributed the most to Biblical studies, not "Biblical archaeology." [William Dever, "What Remains of the House that Albright Built?" The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 56, No. 1 (Mar., 1993)]

Footnotes

Bibliography

Major books and articles by Albright

*"Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan: An Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths",
*"The Archaeology of Palestine: From the Stone Age to Christianity"
*"The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra"
* cite journal
last = Albright | first = William F.
year = 1923
title = Interesting finds in tumuli near Jerusalem
journal = [http://www.asor.org/ Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research]
volume = 10 | issue = April | pages = 1–3
doi = 10.2307/1354763

* cite journal
last = Albright | first = William F.
year = 1953
title = New Light from Egypt on the Chronology and History of Israel and Judah
journal = [http://www.asor.org/ Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research]
volume = 130 | pages = 4–11
doi = 10.2307/3219011

Biographies and other works about Albright

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* "Papers delivered at the Symposium 'Homage to William Foxwell Albright', the American Friends of the Israel Exploration Society, Rockville, Maryland, 1984."

Other works

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ee also

*Biblical archaeology

External links

* [http://www.aiar.org/ Official AIAR website]


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