color = lightgrey
name = "Fusobacterium"

image_width = 240px
image_caption = "Fusobacterium novum" in liquid culture.
domain = Bacteria
phylum = Fusobacteria
familia = Fusobacteriaceae
genus = "Fusobacterium"
genus_authority = Knorr 1922
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision ="F. necrophorum" "F. nucleatum" "F. polymorphum" "F. novum"

Fusobacterium is a genus of filamentous, anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, similar to "Bacteroides". [cite book | author = Madigan M; Martinko J (editors). | title = Brock Biology of Microorganisms | edition = 11th ed. | publisher = Prentice Hall | year = 2005 | id = ISBN 0-13-144329-1 ] "Fusobacterium" contribute to several human diseases, including periodontal diseases, Lemierre's syndrome, and topical skin ulcers. Although older resources have stated that "Fusobacterium" is a common occurrence in the human oropharynx, the current consensus is that "Fusobacterium" should always be treated as a pathogen. cite journal | title=Real-time PCR investigation into the importance of "Fusobacterium necrophorum" as a cause of acute pharyngitis in general practice | author=Aliyu SH, Marriott RK, Curran MD, "et al." | journal=J Med Microbiol | volume=53 | year=2004 | pages=1029–35 | doi=10.1099/jmm.0.45648-0 | pmid=15358827 ]

In contrast to Bacteroides spp., Fusobacteria have a potent LPS.

Notable Species

"F. necrophorum"

"Fusobacterium necrophorum" is the species of "Fusobacterium" that is responsible for Lemierre's syndrome, and appears to be responsible for 10% of all acute sore throats and 21% of all recurring sore throats,cite journal | journal=Br J Biomed Sci | year=2005 | volume=62 | issue=2 | pages=66–70 | title=Prevalence of "Fusobacterium necrophorum" and other upper respiratory tract pathogens isolated from throat swabs | author=Batty A, Wren MW. | pmid=15997879 ] [cite journal | journal=J Infect | year=2004 | volume=51 | issue=4 | pages=299–306 | title="Fusobacterium necrophorum" as the cause of recurrent sore throat: comparison of isolates from persistent sore throat syndrome and Lemierre's disease | author=Batty A, Wren MW, Gal M. | pmid=16051369 | doi=10.1016/j.jinf.2004.09.013] with the remainder being caused by Group A streptococci or viruses.

Other complications from "F. necrophorum" include meningitis, complicated by thrombosis of the cerebral veins, [cite journal | journal= Pediatr Infect Dis J | year=1997 | volume=16 | issue=3 | pages=330–331 | title="Fusobacterium necrophorum" meningitis associated with cerebral vessel thrombosis. | author=Larsen PD, Chartrand SA, Adickes M. | pmid=9076827 | doi=10.1097/00006454-199703000-00017] and infection of the urogenital and the gastrointestinal tracts. [cite journal | journal= Clin Infect Dis | year=200 | volume=31 | issue=2 | pages=524–532 | title=Human necrobacillosis, with emphasis on Lemierre's syndrome.| author=Hagelskjaer Kristensen L, Prag J. | pmid=10987717 | doi= 10.1086/313970]

"F. necrophorum" infection usually responds to treatment with penicillin or metronidazole, but penicillin treatment for persistent pharyngitis appears anecdotally to have a higher relapse rate, although the reasons for that are unclear. This bacterium is also considered the cause of the foot disease thrush in horses.

Although this infection is rare, researchers agree that this diagnosis should be considered in a septicaemic patient with thrombosis in an unusual site, and underlying malignancy should be excluded in cases of confirmed "F. necrophorum" occurring at sites caudal to the head. [cite journal | journal= J Med Microbiol | year=2005 | volume=54 | issue=5 | pages=993–995 | title="Fusobacterium necrophorum" infection associated with portal vein thrombosis.| author=Redford ML, Ellis R, Rees CJ.| pmid=10987717 | doi=10.1099/jmm.0.46080-0]

"F. necrophorum" is also a cause for lameness in sheep. Its infection is commonly called scald. It can last for several years on land used by either sheep or cattle and is found on most land of this type throughout the world. Due to its survival length in these areas it is unrealistic to try to remove it. Sheep most often get scald due to breakage or weekness of the skin suronding the hoof. This can occur due to strong footbaths, sandy soils, mild frost byte or prolongened waterlogging of a field which results in denaturing of the skin between the cleats. [http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/welfare/pdf/sheeplameness.pdf]

"F. nucleatum"

"Fusobacterium" "nucleatum" is an oral bacterium, indigenous to the human oral cavity, that plays a role in periodontal disease. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals. It is a key component of periodontal plaque due to its abundance and its ability to coaggregate with other species in the oral cavity. [cite journal | journal= J Bacteriol | year=2002 | volume=184 | issue=7 | pages=2005–2018 | title=Genome sequence and analysis of the oral bacterium 'Fusobacterium nucleatum' strain ATCC 25586.| author=Kapatral V, et al.| pmid=11889109 | doi= 10.1128/JB.184.7.2005-2018.2002]

"F. polymorphum"

"Fusobacterium polymorphum" is a bacterium that has been isolated from the gingival crevice in humans, and has been implicated in the immunopathology of periodontal disease. It has also been isolated in guinea pigs in research studies. [cite journal | journal= Infect Immun | year=1977 | volume=18 | issue=1 | pages=124–129 | title=Anticomplementary activity of 'Fusobacterium polymorphum' in normal and C4-deficient sources of guinea pig complement.| author=Hawley CE, Falker Jr. WA.]


External links

* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mmed.section.1197 "Anaerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli" chapter] in Baron's "Medical Microbiology" (online at the NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=books bookshelf] ).

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