- Louis-Eugène Cavaignac
Infobox Prime Minister
Prime Minister of France
Head of State and Government of the Republic
term_start =28 June 1848
term_end =20 December 1848
predecessor =Executive Commission (Head of State)
François Arago(Head of Government)
successor =Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (Head of State)
Odilon Barrot(Head of Government)
birth_date =15 October 1802
death_date =death date and age|1857|10|28|1802|10|15|
Louis-Eugène Cavaignac (15 October 1802 - 28 October 1857), French general, second son of Jean-Baptiste Cavaignac and brother of Éléonore Louis Godefroi Cavaignac, was born at Paris.
After going through the usual course of study for the military profession, he entered the army as an engineer officer in 1824, and served in the Morea (
Peloponnesus) in 1828, becoming captain in the following year. When the revolution of 1830 broke out he was stationed at Arras, and was the first officer of his regiment to declare for the new order of things. In 1831 he was removed from active duty in consequence of his declared republicanism, but in 1832 he was recalled to the service and sent to Algeria.
This continued to be the main sphere of his activity for sixteen years, and he won special distinction in his fifteen months' command of the exposed garrison of Tlemcen, a command for which he was selected by Marshal
Bertrand Clausel(1836-1837), and in the defence of Cherchell(1840). Almost every step of his promotion was gained on the field of battle, and in 1844 the duc d'Aumalehimself asked for Cavaignac's promotion to the rank of "maréchal de camp". This was made in the same year, and he held various district commands in Algeria up to 1848, when the provisional government appointed him governor-general of the province with the rank of general of division.
= The 1848 Revolutions and the Second Republic =
The post of minister of war was also offered to Cavaignac, but he refused it owing to the unwillingness of the government to quarter troops in Paris, a measure which the general held to be necessary for the stability of the new régime. On his election to the National Assembly, however, Cavaignac returned to Paris. When he arrived on 17 May he found the capital in an extremely critical state. Several riots had already taken place, and by 22 June 1848 a formidable insurrection had been organized — it would be known as the
June Days Uprising.
The only course now open to the National Assembly was to assert its authority by force. On 24 June, the Executive Commission was defeated by a vote of no confidence and Cavaignac was granted full powers, making him France's
de factohead of state and dictator. Cavaignac, first as minister of war and then as dictator, was called to the task of suppressing the revolt. It was no light task, as the national guard was untrustworthy, regular troops were not at hand in sufficient numbers, and the insurgents had abundant time to prepare themselves. Variously estimated at from 30,000 to 60,000 men, well armed and organized, they had entrenched themselves at every step behind formidable barricades, and were ready to avail themselves of every advantage that ferocity and despair could suggest to them.
Cavaignac failed perhaps to appreciate the political exigencies of the moment; as a soldier he would not strike his blow until his plans were matured and his forces sufficiently prepared. When the troops at last advanced in three strong columns, every inch of ground was disputed, and the government troops were frequently repulsed, till, fresh regiments arriving, he forced his way to the Place de la Bastille and crushed the insurrection in its headquarters. The contest, which raged from 23 June to the morning of 26 June, was without doubt the bloodiest and most resolute the streets of Paris have ever seen, and the general did not hesitate to inflict the severest punishment on the rebels.
Cavaignac was censured by some for having, by his delay, allowed the insurrection to gather head; but in the chamber he was declared by a unanimous vote to have deserved well of his country. After laying down his dictatorial powers, he continued to preside over the Executive Committee till the election of a regular president of the republic. It was expected that the suffrages of France would raise Cavaignac to that position. But the mass of the people, and especially the rural population, sick of revolution, and weary even of the moderate republicanism of Cavaignac, were anxious for a stable government. Against the five and a half million votes recorded for
Louis Napoleon, Cavaignac received only a million and a half. Not without chagrin at his defeat, he withdrew into the ranks of the opposition. He continued to serve as a representative during the short remainder of the republic. At the "coup d'état" of 2 December 1851 he was arrested along with the other members of the opposition; but after a short imprisonment at Ham he was released, and, with his newly-married wife, lived in retirement till his death at Ourne (Sarthe).
For a more critical look at Cavaignac's actions from 23 June to 26 June, one can find documentation in
Bakunin's "Statism and Anarchy" from pages 157 - 159. Cavaignac's actions are described as the inspiration to the later Prussian suppression of the National Assembly in Frankfurtand it supporters.
Jacques Marie Eugène Godefroy Cavaignacwas a prominent politician.
June Days Uprising
1848 Revolutions in France
French rule in Algeria
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Louis Eugène Cavaignac — Eugène Cavaignac Le général Eugène Cavaignac Mandats 26e président du Conseil des ministres français (28e chef du gouvernement) chargé du pouvoir exécutif … Wikipédia en Français
Louis-Eugène Cavaignac — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cavaignac. Eugène Cavaignac … Wikipédia en Français
Louis Eugene Cavaignac — Louis Eugène Cavaignac Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cavaignac. Eugène Cavaignac … Wikipédia en Français
Louis Eugène Cavaignac — (* 15. Oktober 1802 in Paris; † 28. Oktober 1857 auf Schloss Ournes bei Flée, Département Sarthe) war ein französischer General. Leben Louis Eugène Cavaignac wurde als Sohn des Politikers … Deutsch Wikipedia
Louis-Eugène Cavaignac — (* 15. Oktober 1802 in Paris; † 28. Oktober 1857 auf Schloss Ournes bei Flée, Département Sarthe) war ein französischer General. Leben Louis Eugène Cavaignac wurde als Sohn des Politikers Jean Baptiste Cavaignac geboren und trat nach der Beend … Deutsch Wikipedia
Eugène Cavaignac (1876-1969) — Eugène Cavaignac Naissance 1876 Décès 1969 Nationalité France Profession … Wikipédia en Français
Eugène Cavaignac — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Eugène Cavaignac (1876 1969), un historien français. Louis Eugène Cavaignac (1802 1857), un général français. Catégorie : Homonymie … Wikipédia en Français
Cavaignac, Louis-Eugène — born Oct. 15, 1802, Paris, France died Oct. 28, 1857, Sarthe French general. He served with distinction in the French conquest of Algeria in the 1840s. In the Revolutions of 1848 he was appointed minister of war. In June he suppressed a workers… … Universalium
CAVAIGNAC, LOUIS EUGÈNE — a distinguished French general, born in Paris; appointed governor of Algeria in 1849, but recalled to be head of the executive power in Paris same year; appointed dictator, suppressed the insurrection in June, after the most obstinate and… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Cavaignac, Louis-Eugène — (15 oct. 1802, París, Francia–28 oct. 1857, Sarthe). General francés. Sirvió con distinción en la conquista francesa de Argelia en la década de 1840. En las Revoluciones de 1848 fue nombrado ministro de guerra. En junio aplastó una revuelta de… … Enciclopedia Universal