- Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone
A Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone, or NWFZ is defined [ [http://www.opanal.org/NWFZ/Res-3472i.pdf] ] by the
United Nationsas an agreement, generally by internationally recognized treaty, to ban the use, development, or deployment of nuclear weaponsin a given area. Additionally, this agreement has mechanisms of verification and control to enforce its obligations.
NWFZs are conceived as incremental measures toward total nuclear disarmament, and have steadily grown in number since the first, governing
Antarctica. Today, there are eight recognized zones which have been achieved or are in the process of acceptance.Also, some countries have not signed international treaties, but have outlawed nuclear weapons, like Austriawith the Atomsperrgesetz in 1999.
There are also a number of proposed agreements, covering the
Middle East, the Korean Peninsula, Central Europe, and South Asia.
A difficulty with the Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone concept is defining suitable zone areas, such that zone neighbours are not considered nuclear threats. For example it was reported in 1996 that no African
Arab statewill ratify the Treaty of Pelindaba until Israel, which is just outside the zone, renounces its nuclear weapons program; however, Algeria and Libya have since ratified it. [ [http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/Review/1996/autumn/free-a96.htm] ]
Seabed Arms Control Treaty(bans the emplacement of nuclear weapon systems on the ocean floor)
Outer Space Treaty(bans placing nuclear weapons in orbit of Earth or otherwise stationing them in outer space)
* [http://www.opanal.org/NWFZ/NWFZ's.htm Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones Around the World] site about NWFZs run by
OPANAL, the organization which monitors the Treaty of Tlatelolco
* [http://www.law.berkeley.edu/centers/ilr/ona/pages/zones.htm Oceans in the Nuclear Age:Nuclear-Free Zones] from the Law of the Sea Institute at
Boalt School of Law( University of California, Berkeley). Includes treaty texts.
* [http://www.atomicmirror.org/nfz/briefing/index.htm Nuclear Weapons Free Zones Briefing Paper] from Atomic Mirror
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