Hydrodynamic lubrication


Hydrodynamic lubrication

Hydrodynamic (HD) lubrication (or fluid film lubrication) has essential elements:

#A lubricant, which must be a viscous fluid.
#Hydrodynamic flow behavior of fluid between bearing and journal.
#The surfaces between which the fluid films move must be convergent.

Hyrdrodynamic (Full Film) Lubrication is obtained when two mating surfaces are completely separated by a cohesive film of lubricant.

The thickness of the film thus exceeds the combined roughness of the surfaces. The coefficient of friction is lower than with boundary-layer lubrication. Hydrodynamic lubrication prevents wear in moving parts, and metal to metal contact is prevented.

Hydrodynamic lubrication requires thin, converging fluid films. These fluids can be liquid or gas, so long as they exhibit viscosity. In computer components, like a hard disk, heads are supported by hydrodynamic lubrication in which the fluid film is the atmosphere.

The scale of these films are on the order of micrometers. Their convergence creates pressures normal to the surfaces they contact, forcing them apart.

3 Types of bearings include:

*Self-acting: Film exists due to relative motion.
*Squeeze film: Film exists due to relative normal motion.
*Externally pressurized: Film exists due to external pressurization.

Conceptually the bearings can be thought of as two major geometric classes: bearing-journal(Anti Friction), and plane-slider(Friction).

The Reynolds equations can be used to derive the governing principles for the fluids. Note that when gases are used, their derivation is much more involved.

The thin films can be thought to have pressure and viscous forces acting on them. Because there is a difference in velocity there will be a difference in the surface traction vectors. Because of mass conservation we can also assume an increase in pressure, making the body forces different.


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