- Pieter Zeeman
name = Pieter Zeeman
imagesize = 180px
caption = Pieter Zeeman
birth_date = birth date|1865|5|25|mf=y
death_date = death date and age|1943|10|9|1865|5|25
University of Amsterdam
University of Leiden
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
prizes = nowrap|
Nobel Prize for Physics(1902)
Pieter Zeeman (
Zonnemaire, May 25, 1865– Amsterdam, October 9, 1943) (pronounced|ˈzeːmɑn) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prizein Physicswith Hendrik Lorentzfor his discovery of the Zeeman effect.
Childhood and youth
Pieter Zeeman was born in
Zonnemaire, a small town on the island of Schouwen-Duiveland, Netherlandsto Catharinus Forandinus Zeeman, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, and Willemina Worst.
He was early on already interested in physics. In 1883, the Aurora borealis happened to be visible in the Netherlands.
Zeeman, then a student of the high school in
Zierikzee, made a drawing and description of the phenomenon and submitted that to Nature, where it was published. The editor praised "the careful observations of Professor Zeeman from his observatory in Zonnemaire", which should have been pleasing to the high school student.
After finishing high school in 1883 he went to
Delftfor supplementary education in classical languages, then a requirement for admission to University. He stayed at the home of Dr. J.W. Lely, co-principal of the gymnasium and brother of Cornelis Lely, who was responsible for the concept and realization of the Zuiderzee Works. While in Delft, he first met Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, who was to become his thesis advisor.
Education and early career
After Zeeman passed the qualification exams in 1885, he studied physics at the
University of Leidenunder Kamerlingh Onnes and Hendrik Lorentz. In 1890, already before finishing his thesis, he became Lorentz' assistant. This allowed him to participate in a research program on the Kerr effect. In 1893, he submitted his doctor's thesis that was devoted to the Kerr effect, on the reflection of polarized light on a magnetized surface. After obtaining his doctorate, he went for half a year to F. Kohlrausch' institute in Strasbourg. In 1895, after returning from Strasbourg, Zeeman became Privatdozentin mathematics and physics in Leiden. The same year he married Johanna Elisabeth Lebret (1873–1962); they had three daughters and one son. In 1896, three years after submitting his thesis on the Kerr effect, he made the discovery of what is now known as the Zeeman effect. As an extension of his thesis research, he began investigating the effect of magnetic fields on a lightsource. He discovered that a spectral lineis split into several components in the presence of a magnetic field. Lorentz first heard about Zeeman's observations on Saturday, October 31, 1896 at the meeting of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciencesin Amsterdam, where these results were communicated by Kamerlingh Onnes. The next Monday, Lorentz called Zeeman in his office and presented him with an explanation of his observations, based on Lorentz' theory of electromagnetic radiation.
The importance of Zeeman's discovery became soon apparent. It confirmed Lorentz' prediction about the polarization of light emitted in the presence of a magnetic field. Because of Zeeman's work, it appeared that the oscillating particles that according to Lorentz were the source of light emission were negatively charged, and were a thousandfold lighter than the hydrogen atom. This conclusion was reached well before Thomson's discovery of the
electron. The Zeeman effect thus became an important tool for elucidating the structure of the atom.
Professor in Amsterdam
Because of his discovery, Zeeman was offered a position as
lecturerin Amsterdamin 1897, and in 1900 followed his promotion to professor of physics at the University of Amsterdam. In 1902, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics for the discovery of the Zeeman effect, together with his former mentor Lorentz. Five years later, in 1908, he succeeded Van der Waals as full professor and Director of the Physics Institute in Amsterdam.
In 1923, a new laboratory was built in Amsterdam, which in 1940 was renamed Zeeman Laboratory. This new facility allowed him to pursue refined investigation of the Zeeman effect. For the remainder of his career, he remained interested in research in Magneto-Optics. He also investigated the propagation of light in moving media. This subject became the focus of a renewed interest because of
special relativity, and enjoyed keen interest from Lorentz and Einstein.Later in his career he became interested in Mass spectrometry.
In 1898, Zeeman was elected member of the
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciencesin Amsterdam, and he served as its secretary from 1912 to 1920. He won the Henry Draper Medalin 1921, and several other awards and Honorary degrees. He became Emeritusprofessor in 1935.
Zeeman died on October 9, 1943 in Amsterdam, and was interred in
Awards and honours
Zeeman received the following awards for his contributions.
Nobel Prize for Physics(1902)
Henry Draper Medal(1921)
Zeeman crater on the
moonis named in his honor.
Atom and Atomic Theory
Fresnel drag coefficient
References and further reading
* Paul Forman, "
Alfred Landéand the anomalous Zeeman Effect, 1919-1921", Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, Vol. 2, 1970, 153-261.
* Albert van Helden [http://www.historyofscience.nl/author.cfm?RecordId=39 "Pieter Zeeman 1865 – 1943"] In: K. van Berkel, A. van Helden and L. Palm ed., A History of Science in The Netherlands. Survey, Themes and Reference (Leiden: Brill, 1999) 606 - 608.
* [http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1902/zeeman-bio.html biography] at the Nobel e-museum and [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1902/zeeman-lecture.html Nobel Lecture] .
* Museum Boerhaave [http://www.museumboerhaave.nl/ONDERWIJS/VOORTGEZET/2defase/ANW/pdf/nobelprijswinnaars.pdf Negen Nederlandse Nobelprijswinnaars]
* P.F.A. Klinkenberg, [http://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten/BWN/lemmata/bwn1/zeeman "Zeeman, Pieter (1865-1943)"] , in Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland.
* Biography of [http://www.kb.nl/hkc/nobel/zeeman/zeeman.html "Pieter Zeeman (1865 – 1943)"] at the National library of the Netherlands.
* Anne J. Kox, [http://staff.science.uva.nl/~kox/oratie.html "Wetenschappelijke feiten en postmoderne fictie in de wetenschapsgeschiedenis"] , Inaugural lecture (1999).
* Pim de Bie, [http://www.dodenakkers.nl/beroemd/zeeman.html "prof.dr. P. Zeeman Zonnemaire 25 mei 1865 - Amsterdam 9 oktober 1943"] Gravesite of Pieter Zeeman
* [http://bc.ub.leidenuniv.nl/bc/tentoonstelling/lorentz_zeeman/object3.htm#P "Pieter Zeeman"] , Bijzondere collecties Leiden.
* [http://physics.nobel.brainparad.com/pieter_zeeman.html photo & short info]
Nobel Prize in Physics Laureates 1901-1925
NAME= Zeeman, Pieter
DATE OF BIRTH=
May 25, 1865
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
October 9, 1943
PLACE OF DEATH=
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pieter Zeeman — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Pieter Zeeman. Pieter Zeeman (Zonnemaire, Holanda, 25 de mayo de 1865 Ámsterdam, 9 de octubre de 1943) fue un físico neerlandés galardonado con el Premio … Wikipedia Español
Pieter Zeeman — (* 25. Mai 1865 in Zonnemaire Schouwen Duiveland, Zeeland, Niederlande; † 9. Oktober 1943 in Amsterdam) war ein niederländischer Physiker. Für seine Verdienste bei den Untersuchungen über den Einfluss des Magnetismus auf die Strahlungsphänomene… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pieter Zeeman — Naissance 25 mai 1865 Zonnemaire (Pays Bas) Décès 9 octobre 1943 … Wikipédia en Français
Pieter Zeeman — (n. Zonnemaire, Holanda, 25 de mayo de 1865 † Amsterdam, 9 de octubre de 1943). Físico holandés. Estudió en la Universidad de Leyden con Lorentz, donde después impartió clases de física desde 1897 a 1900, fecha en la que ganó la cátedra de física … Enciclopedia Universal
Pieter Zeeman — noun Dutch physicist honored for his research on the influence of magnetism on radiation which showed that light is radiated by the motion of charged particles in an atom (1865 1943) • Syn: ↑Zeeman • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physicist … Useful english dictionary
Physiknobelpreis 1902: Hendrik Lorentz — Pieter Zeeman — Die Niederländer wurden für ihre außergewöhnlichen Verdienste bei der Erforschung des Einflusses des Magnetismus auf Strahlungserscheinungen ausgezeichnet. Biografien Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, * Arnheim (Niederlande) 18. 7. 1853, ✝ Haarlem 4 … Universal-Lexikon
ZEEMAN (EFFET) — En 1896, le physicien néerlandais Pieter Zeeman a découvert que, lorsqu’un spectre atomique est émis par une lampe soumise à un champ magnétique suffisamment élevé, chaque raie spectrale se divise en plusieurs composantes polarisées linéairement… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Zeeman — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Erik Christopher Zeeman (* 1925), britischer Mathematiker Pieter Zeeman (1865−1943), niederländischer Physiker Reinier Zeeman (1623−1688), niederländischer Maler und Radierer der Name eines Unternehmens:… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Pieter — is a given name, and may refer to: * Sint Pieter, a village now incorporated in Maastricht; * Sint Pieters, a suburb of Bruges; * Pieterburen, a village in the north of Groningen; * Pieter de Coninck (? 1332), Flemish revolutionary; * Pieter… … Wikipedia
Zeeman — can refer to: * Pieter Zeeman, a Dutch physicist and 1902 Nobel laureate, discoverer of the Zeeman effect * Reinier Nooms, a Dutch painter, etcher and engraver * Sir Erik Christopher Zeeman, mathematician … Wikipedia