Monarch Airlines


Monarch Airlines
Monarch Airlines
IATA
ZB
ICAO
MON
Callsign
MONARCH
Founded 5 June 1967
Commenced operations 5 April 1968
Operating bases
Frequent-flyer program Vantage Club
Fleet size 30
Destinations 100+ (23 scheduled)
Company slogan Fly Your Way. Every Day
Headquarters London Luton Airport
Luton, United Kingdom
Key people
  • Iain Rawlinson (Chairman)
  • Conrad Clifford (CEO)
  • Richard Mintern (COO)
Website www.monarch.co.uk
Monarch's most recent former logo, used between 2009 and 2011

Monarch Airlines, often shortened to and trading as Monarch, is a British charter and scheduled airline based at London Luton Airport in Luton.[1] It is one of the United Kingdom's largest charter airlines, operating to Europe, the United States, the Caribbean, India and Africa, serving mainly leisure destinations. It also operates scheduled flights to many Mediterranean destinations, the Canary Islands, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece and Turkey.

The airline's main base and headquarters is at Luton Airport with other operational bases at Manchester, Gatwick and Birmingham. Manchester is Monarch's primary scheduled and largest base while Gatwick is its main charter base.It is the oldest UK airline that has not changed its original name. Its workforce numbers around 2,070.[2]

Monarch Airlines carried around 5.8 million passengers during 2010.[3] In June 2010, the airline was ranked 58th in the Sunday Times Top Track 100 listing the biggest privately held[nb 1] British companies in terms of their sales.[4] The company holds a United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) Type A Operating Licence, permitting it to carry passengers, cargo and mail on aircraft with 20 or more seats.[5]

Contents

History

One of Monarch's first aircraft, a Bristol Britannia 300 which can be seen today at Duxford Airfield

The 1960s

Monarch Airlines was formed on 5 June 1967 by former British Eagle International Airlines directors Bill Hodgson and Don Peacock with financial backing from the Swiss Albek and Mantegazza families, as a subsidiary of Globus Gateway Holdings.[6][7] At the time of Monarch's inception, the Albek and Mantegazza families were the owners of UK-based tour operator Cosmos Tours (now Cosmos Holidays).[8][9]

Monarch began commercial airline operations on 5 April 1968 with a charter flight from Luton to Madrid using a former Caledonian Airways Bristol 175 Britannia 300 turboprop.[7][10][11] The airline's initial fleet comprised two Bristol Britannias (both ex-Caledonian).[7]

The airline acquired additional Britannias from the British Eagle administrators in 1969, its second year of operation.[12] This was the first time the company carried 250,000 passengers within a 12-month period utilising a fleet of six Britannias.[13]

The 1970s

Monarch entered the jet age in 1971 when three Boeing 720Bs, which it had acquired second-hand from Northwest Airlines for US$1m each, joined its fleet.[14][15][16] The airline's first commercial jet service took to the air on 13 December 1971.[13] The introduction of the company's first jet aircraft type also coincided with the adoption of a revised livery.

In 1972, the firm carried 500,000 passengers in one year for the first time.[13]

By 1976, Monarch had transitioned to an all-jet fleet following the sale of the airline's last Britannia to Greek cargo charter airline Afrek on 21 May of that year.[nb 2][17][18] (This event had been preceded two years earlier by the retirement of the airline's last passenger-configured Britannia, the only remaining example of its kind in UK commercial airline service which operated the type's final commercial passenger flight in Europe on 9 October 1974.[19][20]) The changeover to an all-jet fleet was brought about as a result of the acquisition of a further two second-hand Boeing 720Bs as well as the addition of a pair of BAC One-Eleven 500s, which had been sourced from British Caledonian and the administrators of the failed Court Line respectively.[17][21][22]

In 1979, Alan Snudden, CBE,[23] took over as Monarch Airlines' managing director, having joined Monarch from Dan-Air, where he had held the same position.[24][25]

Under Alan Snudden's stewardship, Monarch Airlines acquired its first new aircraft and eventually transitioned to an all-new jet fleet.[26]

The 1980s

Monarch Airlines 1980s logo

At the end of 1980, Monarch Airlines took delivery of its first new jet aircraft, a pair of Boeing 737-200 Advanced, which had been acquired on an operating lease from Bavaria Leasing (at the time a unit of Hapag Lloyd Airlines).[26][27] One of the newly delivered 737s was stationed at Tegel Airport in what used to be West Berlin in the days before Germany's reunification at the beginning of the 1981 summer season.[27] The Berlin-based aircraft operated short to medium-haul charter flights to the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands under contract to Flug-Union Berlin, at the time one of West Berlin's leading package tour operators. Monarch had taken over Flug-Union Berlin's charter programme from Laker Airways.[28] The addition of the new 737s expanded Monarch's fleet to 11 jet aircraft, comprising one Boeing 707-320C, five Boeing 720Bs, three BAC One-Eleven 500s and two Boeing 737-200 Advs.[26]

In 1981, new stations were opened at Gatwick, Glasgow, Manchester and Berlin Tegel.[13][28] This was the first time Monarch Airlines carried a million passengers in a single year. 1981 was also the year Monarch became the first charter airline to order the Boeing 757-200, a high-capacity, medium-haul single-aisle plane powered by Rolls-Royce RB211-535C engines.[29] Monarch's 757 order represented a major step change for a small airline.[30] Its first 757 was delivered and entered service in the spring of 1983.[30] This coincided with the introduction of an updated livery, the third in the airline's history.

In spring 1985, the CAA awarded Monarch Airlines licences to begin scheduled services to Málaga, Minorca and Tenerife. This enabled the airline to launch its first-ever scheduled service from Luton to Minorca on 5 July 1986, under the brand name Monarch Crown Service.[13]

1986 saw the acquisition of Monarch's first Boeing 737-300 aircraft. From November 1988, four of Monarch's 737-300s were leased out to Euroberlin France, a Berlin Tegel based Franco-German joint venture airline that was 51% owned by Air France and 49% by Lufthansa.[31][32] Apart from the aircraft itself, Monarch Airlines also provided the flightdeck crew and maintenance support (through sister company Monarch Aircraft Engineering) for this airline. By 1990, seven 737-300s were assigned to the Euroberlin wet lease.[33][34]

1988 was the first time Monarch Airlines carried more than two million passengers in a year.[13]

The 1990s

Boeing 757-200 in the old livery, Alicante Airport, Spain

In 1990, Monarch Airlines introduced the Airbus A300-600R, its first widebodied aircraft type, and opened a new purpose-built headquarters that also housed the airline's own Boeing 757 flight simulator at its Luton base.[13][33]

During the early 1990s, Monarch Airlines operated several Boeing 767-300ER widebodies on behalf of Alitalia Team, a unit of Italy's flag carrier, under a wet lease arrangement similar to the one Monarch had with Euroberlin France.[35]

In 1993, Monarch Airlines introduced the first Airbus A320 aircraft into its fleet. (The first of the larger Airbus A321s joined Monarch's fleet in 1997.)[36] Airbus A320 family aircraft eventually replaced the airline's Boeing 737-300s.[37][38]

In 1998, Monarch Airlines leased two McDonnell Douglas MD-11 widebodied aircraft from World Airways for its long-haul operations whilst awaiting the delivery of a pair of new Airbus A330-200 widebodies. Following the A330s arrival in 1999,[39][40][41] Monarch returned the MD-11s to World Airways.[13][42] The new A330 widebodies permitted Monarch to serve long-haul charter destinations with a two-class seating configuration, another first for the airline.[13][41]

The 2000s

Airbus A320 at Gibraltar Airport with flymonarch.com written at the front, the airline's original web address

Monarch's sole McDonnell Douglas DC-10 (a series 30 aircraft) was retired from service in 2002 and the aircraft's front section donated to Manchester Airport Aviation Viewing Park. In 2002, Monarch also unveiled a brand-new livery — the airline's fourth. Also, the company re-branded its Monarch Crown Service scheduled division as Monarch Scheduled.[13] Monarch Scheduled continued to offer a full service product, including free catering, bar service, hot towels, newspapers and in-flight entertainment (IFE). (Currently, IFE is only available on flights over four hours.)

In 2003, Monarch Scheduled announced that it would open a new base at Gatwick Airport. The base opened on 1 May 2003 with services to Alicante, Faro and Málaga.[43]

In 2004, following the success of the low-fares, no frills airlines such as EasyJet, Monarch adopted a modified low-cost model featuring additional charges for food and drink as well as seat selection and in-flight entertainment. In November 2007, Monarch introduced charges for passengers with hold baggage, in line with other low-cost airlines.

An Airbus A321 taxing to the runway at Manchester Airport

In 2005, Monarch leased a Boeing 767-300ER from MyTravel Airways (now Thomas Cook Airlines) to expand its long-haul fleet. The aircraft was returned in 2010.

In November 2005, Monarch opened a base in Málaga.[44] The airline based one Airbus A320 aircraft there. Monarch launched three scheduled services from Málaga, to Aberdeen (four per week), Blackpool (daily) and Newquay (three per week). The Newquay service was discontinued on 30 April 2006 along with Blackpool services reducing to four per week. About a year later, scheduled services from Málaga to Blackpool were also dropped due to low passenger numbers. On 27 October 2007, flights to Aberdeen were withdrawn as well due to poor patronage.[45] This resulted in closure of Monarch's Málaga base.

Airbus A321-200, (G-OZBU) in the new 2009 livery, takes off from Manchester Airport

On 15 December 2004, Monarch Scheduled announced that it would open a new base at Birmingham Airport. The base opened in April 2005 with new routes to Málaga and Tenerife.[46]

To operate scheduled services from Manchester, a second-hand Airbus A321 was acquired. Monarch became the airport's second-largest passenger airline in 2005 with 1.72m passengers using its services from/to the airport.[47] Monarch's total passenger numbers increased from 4.55m in 2002[48] to 6.5m in 2008.[49]

Airbus A320-200 at Manchester Airport in the Prince William & Kate Royal Wedding scheme

In August 2006, Monarch ordered six Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner widebodied jets, primarily for use on long-haul routes. Delivery was planned to start in 2010; however, delays to the 787 project pushed back delivery to 2013,[50][51] and in September 2011, the airline cancelled the order citing its strategic decision to concentrate on short-/medium-haul operations.[52][53]

In 2008, Monarch changed the name of its website from flymonarch.com to monarch.co.uk. It also changed its advertising slogan to The Low Fare Airline That Cares.[54]

2010 onwards

After many years of operating profitably, Monarch Group, the parent company of Monarch Airlines and Cosmos Holidays, reported a large pre-tax loss of £32.3m in the financial year ending in 2009, which covered the depths of the recession in 2008. This necessitated a £45m cash injection from the Mantegazzas who have [co-]owned the group since its inception. The Mantegazza's cash injection was accompanied by a change in strategy that saw Monarch Airlines changing its focus from being primarily a charter carrier to becoming a predominantly "scheduled leisure airline", with a target of 80% of its business being scheduled (compared with only 20% in 2005). The new strategy has already resulted in introduction of additional scheduled services to new destinations in Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Spain and Portugal, including the launch on 23 May 2011 of a three times weekly scheduled service to the Greek island of Corfu — the airline's first scheduled Greek destination — from London Luton. France and Italy are expected to join Monarch's scheduled network in 2012.[55][56][57][58]

To increase Monarch's attractiveness as a viable alternative to EasyJet and Ryanair, its much bigger, main low-cost competitors, all debit card charges were abolished and only a £10 flat rate is applied to credit card transactions. To highlight these differences as additional selling points, Monarch has introduced the advertising slogan Fly Your Way. Every Day together with a new logo incorporating the airline's old capital "M" and crown.[56]

Although Monarch managed to make a small £1.4m profit in 2010, it reported another huge £45m loss in the financial year ending 31 October 2011 as a result of high jet fuel prices against the backdrop of a stagnant economy and political turmoil in the Middle East and North Africa. Higher fuel prices increased the airline's annual fuel bill by £50m while lower bookings to destinations in the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa as a consequence of the Arab Spring reduced projected earnings by £25m. This reversal of fortunes necessitated a second, £75m cash injection from its owners.[55][58][59]

Monarch's revised business plan envisages a small loss in the financial year ending in 2012 and a return to profitability in 2013.[55]

Airbus A321 at Manchester Airport

In a related announcement made on 31 October 2011, Monarch confirmed the closure of its charter base at Dublin Airport.

Following official confirmation of the £75m rescue package for the airline on 3 November 2011, chairman Iain Rawlinson announced a major expansion of the airline's scheduled operation that will see the launch of 14 additional routes serving new destinations in Italy, Croatia and Greece from Gatwick, Luton, Birmingham and Manchester. Flights will commence at the start of the 2012 summer season. This will bring the total number of scheduled routes Monarch will serve during that period to 73. Two Airbus A320 aircraft will join Monarch's fleet in time for summer 2012 to support the increased level of activity. The addition of these aircraft also marks the first stage of a medium-term plan to increase the fleet size to 40 aircraft in support of the airline's goal to carry 10m passengers annually by the time the final stage has been fully implemented. Growing the fleet to enable an increase in annual passenger numbers will allow the airline to spread its fixed costs over a higher level of output, thus resulting in greater economies of scale.[58][59][60]


Ownership

Monarch Airlines is a wholly owned subsidiary of Monarch Holdings, which in turn is 100%-owned by the Globus Travel Group.[8][12] As of mid-2010, Globus Travel's shareholders included

  • Amerald Investments (88%)
  • Atlantic Financial Services (7%)
  • Abaco Holdings (4%).

CelebAir (2008)

Monarch's CelebAir aircraft

Monarch Airlines provided the aircraft, an Airbus A321, to launch a new ITV2 programme called CelebAir. Celebrities were trained and took on duties performed by airline staff, such as cabin crew. The destinations to which CelebAir flew were mainly Monarch's scheduled destinations, including Málaga, Alicante, Tenerife, Faro, Ibiza, Mahon and Larnaca. These flights carried fare-paying customers. The programme first aired on 2 September 2008. The programme has now finished with Lisa Maffia winning the series, Amy Lamé finishing second and Chico Slimani finishing third.

Hedkandi (2007 and 2008)

On 27 April 2007, Monarch Airlines started flights to Ibiza partnered with club brand HedKandi, naming the partnership "FlyKandi". One of Monarch's Boeing 757s received a special FlyKandi livery with billboard FlyKandi titles and a special tail motif. The HedKandi partnership lasted for the 2007 summer season, with flights to Ibiza being sold from four major UK airports. It was then renewed for the 2008 summer season, offering the same services. HedKandi CDs and radio stations were available for purchase and to listen to on board Monarch aircraft. Hedkandi did not renew their partnership contract for the 2009 summer season.

Destinations

Fleet

Current fleet

The Monarch fleet consists of the following aircraft as of November 2011:[61]

Monarch Airlines Fleet
Aircraft Total Orders Options Passengers[62] Average age (years)[63] Notes
W Y Total
Airbus A300-600R 4 0 352 352 21.3
Airbus A320-200 5 0 174 174 16.0
Airbus A321-200 16 0 214 214 9.7
Airbus A330-200 2 51 323 374 12.7 1 leased to Garuda Indonesia
Boeing 757-200 3 0 229 229 23.9
Total 30 0 0 14.8

Historical fleet

Monarch used to operate the following aircraft:

Monarch Historical Fleet

Aircraft Total Time of operation Notes
BAC One-Eleven 500 3 1974–1985
Boeing 707-120B 4 1978-
Boeing 707-320C 1 1981-
Boeing 720B 6 1971–1981
Boeing 737-200 5 1981–1987
Aircraft Total Time Of Operation Notes
Boeing 737-300 12 1988–1997 Replaced by Airbus A320-200s and Airbus A321-200s
Boeing 767-300ER 1 2005–2010 Leased from MyTravel for five years.
Bristol Britannia 300 8 1967–1976 One at Duxford Airfield
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 1 1996–2002 Front section at Manchester Airport Viewing Park,Special Crew use

Statistics

Monarch Airlines carried nearly 5.8 m passengers during 2010; 3.7 m on scheduled flights and 2.1 m on charter flights.[3]

Year Scheduled Charter All Services
Total passengers Total flights Load factor Passenger Change YoY Total passengers Total flights Load factor Passenger Change YoY Total passengers Total flights Load factor Passenger Change YoY
2005 2,558,218 16,473 74.1% 2,794,378 12,773 87.7% 5,352,596 29,246 82.5%
2006 3,134,230 19,834 76.2% increase022.5% 2,654,004 12,422 86.3% decrease005.0% 5,788,234 32,256 82.0% increase008.1%
2007 3,625,732 22,443 78.9% increase015.7% 2,521,233 11,849 85.9% decrease005.0% 6,146,965 34,292 82.6% increase006.2%
2008 3,870,298 23,158 81.0% increase006.7% 2,630,528 12,449 86.1% increase004.3% 6,500,826 35,607 83.6% increase005.8%
2009 3,668,528 21,581 81.3% decrease005.2% 2,453,557 12,598 85.8% decrease006.7% 6,122,085 34,179 83.6% decrease005.8%
2010 3,691,355 20,640 84.6% increase000.6% 2,103,347 10,576 85.9% decrease014.3% 5,794,702 31,216 85.2% decrease005.3%
Source: UK Civil Aviation Authority [3]

In-flight services

  • Monarch offers pre-bookable meals at an extra charge, this is a recent move away from being able to buy your meals once you are onboard the aircraft. Alternatively, Monarch provides a buy on board programme offering food for purchase on board the aircraft.[64]
  • During the flight there is the option to buy products such as fragrances on board the aircraft.
  • There is a monthly in-flight magazine including a travel guide, a map of Monarch's destinations, snacks on board and the shopping available to buy.
  • In-flight entertainment (IFE) is available on all long-haul flights, showing either television programmes or films. There is also a limited IFE selection on medium-haul flights.
  • Premium upgrades are predominantly available on long haul routes, which include more legroom and seatback entertainment.[65]
  • Monarch is preparing to be the first British carrier to offer wireless internet access onboard its aircraft.[66]

Awards

  • FlightOnTime.info Most Improved UK Charter Airline for Punctuality – Summer 2007[67]
  • Travel Trade Gazette Airline of the Year – Leisure 2006 and 2007 [68]
  • TravelWeekly Globe Travel Awards – Best Charter Airline 2009,[69] 2010[70] and 2011[71]
  • World's greenest airline ITB Berlin travel show – The number 1 greenest airline 2011[72]

Accidents and Incidents

  • On 22 May 2002, a Boeing 757-200 (Registration G-MONC) suffered structural damage to the forward fuselage in the area of the nose landing gear during landing at Gibraltar while operating a flight from Luton. The captain had used an incorrect landing technique, applying full nose-down elevator. This control input resulted in a high pitch-down rate at nosewheel touchdown, in exceedance of the design limits, before the aircraft's nosewheel had touched the ground. No fatalities occurred.[73]
  • On 17 March 2006, the flightdeck crew of a Boeing 757-200 (Registration G-MONE) lost visual contact with the runway after passing the Visual Decision Point (VDP) while attempting to land at Gibraltar Airport. During the subsequent go-around, the crew did not follow the correct missed approach procedures but air traffic control (ATC) provided effective heading control to avoid striking high ground. The lowest altitude of the aircraft when over land was 2,100 ft. (The highest point over land, just south of the airfield, is 1,420 ft.) Following the incident, ATC and Monarch Airlines changed their procedures to reduce the chances of repeating a similar occurrence.[74]

Notes and Citations

Notes
  1. ^ as opposed to publicly traded
  2. ^ the same aircraft was re-purchased in 1984 and, subsequent to its overhaul at Luton, sold on to Cuban operator Aero Caribbean
Citations
  1. ^ "contact us – press office." Monarch Airlines. Retrieved on 6 November 2010.
  2. ^ Monarch Facts & Figures
  3. ^ a b c "UK Airline Statistics | Data | Economic Regulation". UK CAA. 2010-04-19. http://www.caa.co.uk/default.aspx?catid=80&pagetype=88&pageid=1&sglid=1. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
  4. ^ The Sunday Times (Top Track 100 Deloitte, British private companies with the biggest sales), Times Newspapers Ltd, London, 20 June 2010
  5. ^ Operating licence
  6. ^ "World Airline Directory 1968". Flight International. March 1968. 
  7. ^ a b c "The 40-year-old start-up – Monarch Airlines", Maslen, R. in Airliner World July 2008, Key Publishing, Stamford, 2008, p. 33
  8. ^ a b http://www.ttglive.com/NArticleDetails.asp?aid=6831 Brown Eager to See Monarch Reigning, Travel Trade Gazette Archive issue, 16 February 2007
  9. ^ "The 40-year-old start-up – Monarch Airlines", Maslen, R. in Airliner World July 2008, Key Publishing, Stamford, 2008, p. 32
  10. ^ http://www.flymonarch.com/cnt/news/index.asp?hdlId=1184 Flying the nation for 40 years! Were you one of our first passengers? www.flymonarch.com/cnt/news 03/03/2008
  11. ^ "World Airline Directory 1969". Flight International. March 1969. 
  12. ^ a b Prudence Reigns at Monarch, Hales-Dutton, B. in Commercial, Air International February 2010, Key Publishing, Stamford, 2010, Vol. 78, Iss. 2, p. 45
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j [1]
  14. ^ Monarch's First Jet, Air Transport, Flight International, 7 October 1971, p. 564
  15. ^ Jet Monarch, Air Transport ..., Flight International, 2 December 1971, p. 890
  16. ^ "World Airline Directory 1972". Flight International. March 1972. 
  17. ^ a b "World Airline Directory 1977". Flight International. March 1977. 
  18. ^ "RAF Britannia Fleet – XM496 Regulus". The Bristol Britannia XM496 Preservation Society. http://www.xm496.com/xm496.php. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011. 
  19. ^ Flight International, 17 October 1974, p. 515
  20. ^ "Bristol Aeroplane Company – Bristol Type 175 Britannia". flightline. http://aviation.elettra.co.uk/flightline/profile.php?aircraft=britannia. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011. 
  21. ^ "World Airline Directory 1975". Flight International. March 1975. 
  22. ^ "World Airline Directory 1976". Flight International. March 1976. 
  23. ^ The Spirit of Dan-Air, Simons, G.M., GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1993, pp. 166/7
  24. ^ The Spirit of Dan-Air, Simons, G.M., GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1993, pp. 173/4
  25. ^ It was nice to fly with friends! The story of Air Europe., Simons, G.A., GMS Enterprises, Peterborough, 1999, pp. 9/10
  26. ^ a b c "World Airline Directory 1981". Flight International. March 1981. 
  27. ^ a b New operators for Boeing 737, Flight International, 18 October 1980, p. 1493
  28. ^ a b Berlin Airport Company, April 1981 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1981
  29. ^ Monarch Airlines – Our History
  30. ^ a b "World Airline Directory 1983". Flight International. March 1983. 
  31. ^ "World Airline Directory 1989". Flight International. March 1989. 
  32. ^ Berlin Airport Company, November 1988 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1988
  33. ^ a b "World Airline Directory 1990". Flight International. March 1990. 
  34. ^ Berlin Airport Company, November 1989 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1989
  35. ^ "World Airline Directory 1992". Flight International. March 1992. 
  36. ^ Prudence Reigns at Monarch, Hales-Dutton, B. in Commercial, Air International February 2010, Key Publishing, Stamford, 2010, Vol. 78, Iss. 2, p. 48
  37. ^ "World Airline Directory 1994". Flight International. March 1994. 
  38. ^ "World Airline Directory 1995". Flight International. March 1995. 
  39. ^ Long-range workout, Monarch – long haul charters, A330-200 In-service Report, Flight International, 17–23 November 1999, p. 43
  40. ^ Long-range workout, Monarch – long haul charters, A330-200 In-service Report, Flight International, 17–23 November 1999, p. 44
  41. ^ a b Long-range workout, Monarch long haul charters, A330-200 In-service Report, Flight International, 17–23 November 1999, p. 45
  42. ^ "World Airline Directory 1999". Flight International. March 1999. 
  43. ^ "2008 News Archive – Flights – Monarch Scheduled arrives at London Gatwick". 17 Apr 2003. http://www.monarch.co.uk/news/flights/news-archive/monarch-scheduled-arrives-at-london-gatwick. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011. 
  44. ^ "Flight News: New Monarch flights to Malaga". flightmapping.com. 21 Jul 2005. http://news.flightmapping.com/05/07/21/new-monarch-flights-to-malaga_525.html. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011. 
  45. ^ "Flight News: Monarch axes Malaga flights from Aberdeen". flightmapping.com. 27 Jul 2007. http://news.flightmapping.com/07/07/27/monarch-axes-malaga-flights-from-aberdeen_1390.html. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011. 
  46. ^ "2008 News Archive – Flights – Monarch Scheduled launches new Birmingham base and adds Madrid and Almeria from Manchester". 15 Dec 2004. http://www.monarch.co.uk/news/flights/news-archive/monarch-scheduled-launches-new-birmingham-base-and-adds-madrid-and-almeria-from-manchester. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011. 
  47. ^ "Traffic Statistics Report 2005". Manchester Airport Plc. June 2006. pp. 11, 16. 
  48. ^ UK Airline Statistics 2002
  49. ^ UK Airline Statistics 2008
  50. ^ Monarch expects first 787 Dreamliner by 2011
  51. ^ Prudence Reigns at Monarch, Hales-Dutton, B. in Commercial, Air International February 2010, Key Publishing, Stamford, 2010, Vol. 78, Iss. 2, p. 46
  52. ^ Monarch cancels Dreamliner order
  53. ^ "UK's Monarch Airlines cancels entire 787 order". Flightglobal. 06 September 2011. http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2011/09/06/361663/uks-monarch-airlines-cancels-entire-787-order.html. Retrieved 04 November 2011. 
  54. ^ Monarch's new slogan and website
  55. ^ a b c The Sunday Times (Business: Swiss billionaires bail out ailing Monarch – again), Times Newspapers Ltd, London, 30 October 2011
  56. ^ a b "Business: Monarch's bright future with sunshine flights". Manchester Evening News. 02 June 2011. http://menmedia.co.uk/manchestereveningnews/news/business/s/1422492_monarchs-bright-future-with-sunshine-flights. Retrieved 04 November 2011. 
  57. ^ "2011 News – Flights – Monarch launches a host of new flights in May!". 28 Apr 2011. http://www.monarch.co.uk/news/flights/2011-news/new-monarch-flights-may. Retrieved 5 Jul 2011. 
  58. ^ a b c "Monarch to increase fleet after cash injection from owners". TTG Digital. 03 November 2011. http://www.ttgdigital.com/news/monarch-to-increase-fleet-after-cash-injection-from-owners/4682109.article. Retrieved 03 November 2011. 
  59. ^ a b The Times (Business: Monarch makes a soft landing after £45m loss), Times Newspapers Ltd, London, 4 November 2011
  60. ^ "Economies of Scale and Scope – 2 (Where do Scale Economies come from?, Indivisibilities and the Spreading of Fixed Costs". media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/.... 2009-03-17. p. 45. http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/45/EHEP0002/EHEP000245-2.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-05. 
  61. ^ Civil Aviation Authority Aircraft Register
  62. ^ Monarch – Aircraft and Regulations
  63. ^ Info On Monarch's Fleet Age
  64. ^ "Menu." Monarch Airlines Meals. Accessed 30 October 2008.
  65. ^ "FAQs – Flights – Seating – Premium Cabin Information". http://www.monarch.co.uk/faq/flights/seating/premium-cabin-information. Retrieved 4 Nov 2011. 
  66. ^ "Monarch to become first to offer wireless internet at 35,000 feet". MailOnline. 09 June 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/money/article-2001822/Monarch-to-offer-wireless-internet-35-000-feet.html. Retrieved 04 November 2011. 
  67. ^ "Summer 2007 UK Charter Airline Delays & Punctuality". FlightOnTime.info. http://www.flightontime.info/summer2007/index.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  68. ^ "achievements / awards". monarch.co.uk. http://flights.monarch.co.uk/cnt/about/awards.asp. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  69. ^ Globe Travel Awards 2009
  70. ^ Globe Travel Awards 2010
  71. ^ Monarch Scoops award for best charter airline 2011
  72. ^ "Travel – News & Advice: World's greenest airlines unveiled". The Independent. 10 March 2011. http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/worlds-greenest-airlines-unveiled-2238390.html. Retrieved 04 November 2011. 
  73. ^ Monarch Accident G-MONC
  74. ^ Monarch Accident G-MONE

References

  • British Independent Airlines since 1946, Volume 3 of 4. A.C. Merton Jones. Merseyside Aviation Society & LAAS. Liverpool, 1976. ISBN 0-902420-09-7.
  • Berlin Airport Company – Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, April and October issues (German language edition only), 1981. West Berlin, Germany: Berlin Airport Company. 
  • Flight International. Sutton, UK: Reed Business Information. ISSN 0015-3710.  (various backdated issues relating to Monarch Airlines, 1968–2007)
  • Simons, Graham M. (1993). The Spirit of Dan-Air. Peterborough, UK: GMS Enterprises. ISBN 1-8703-8420-2. 
  • Simons, Graham M. (1999). It was nice to fly with friends! The story of Air Europe. Peterborough, UK: GMS Enterprises. ISBN 1-8703-8469-5. 
  • Airliner World, July 2008. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. 
  • Air International, Vol. 78, Iss. 2, February 2010. Stamford, UK: Key Publishing. ISSN 0306-5634. 

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