Oulu — City — Oulun kaupunki
Coat of arms
Finland Coordinates: Coordinates: Country Finland Region Northern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Oulu sub-region Charter 1605-04-08 Government – City manager Matti Pennanen Area(2011-01-01) – Total 1,513.37 km2 (584.3 sq mi) – Land 1,410.17 km2 (544.5 sq mi) – Water 103.2 km2 (39.8 sq mi) Area rank 67th largest in Finland Population (2011-01-31) – Total 141,742 – Rank 6th largest in Finland – Density 100.51/km2 (260.3/sq mi) Population by native language – Finnish 97.3% (official) – Swedish 0.2% – Others 2.4% Population by age – 0 to 14 17% – 15 to 64 70.5% – 65 or older 12.5% Time zone EET (UTC+2) – Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Municipal tax rate 19% Website www.ouka.fi
Oulu (pronounced [ˈoulu] ( listen), Swedish: Uleåborg [ˈʉːleɔˌbɔrj]) is a city and municipality of 141,742 inhabitants (31 January 2011) in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, in Finland. It is the most populous city in Northern Finland and the sixth most populous city in the country. It is one of the northernmost larger cities in the world.
- 1 History
- 2 Name
- 3 Geography
- 4 Culture
- 5 Notable people from Oulu
- 6 Sights
- 7 Education
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Employment
- 10 Sports
- 11 International relations
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Oulu was founded on April 8, 1605, by King Charles IX of Sweden opposite to the fort built on the island of Linnansaari. This took place after favourable peace settlements with the Russians, which removed the threat of attack via the main east-west waterway, the river Oulu. The surrounding areas were populated much earlier. Oulu is situated by the Gulf of Bothnia, at the mouth of river Oulujoki, which is an ancient trading site. One possible source for the name Oulu is a word in the Sami language meaning 'flood water', but there are other suggestions. Oulu was the capital of the Province of Oulu from 1776 to 2009.
In 1822, a major fire destroyed much of the city. The architect Carl Ludvig Engel, chiefly known for the neoclassical (empire style) buildings around Helsinki Senate Square, was enlisted to provide the plan for the rebuilding of the city. With minor changes, this plan remains the basis for the layout of Oulu's town center. The Oulu Cathedral was built in 1832 to his designs, with the spire being finished in 1844.
From being a town known for wood tar and salmon in the past, Oulu has evolved into a major centre of competence in the field of high technology, particularly IT and wellness technology. Other prominent industries include wood refining as well as paper and steel industry. The University of Oulu is located six kilometres north of the city center. The Oulu Airport, located in neighbouring municipality of Oulunsalo, is the second busiest in Finland.
The municipality of Ylikiiminki was merged to the city of Oulu on January 1, 2009. The city of Oulu, and the municipalities of Haukipudas, Kiiminki, Oulunsalo and Yli-Ii will be merged together to form a new city of Oulu on January 1, 2013.
There have been a number of theories for the origin of the name Oulu. One theory, and most probable, is that it would be a derivation of a Uralic word meaning "floodwater". This would be a loanword from the Saami language such as Southern Saami åulo, meaning "melted snow" or åulot meaning "thaw". It has also been speculated that the words väylä ("fairway, channel") and uoma ("river channel, bed") and their Northern Savo dialectic word uula is probably a loan from the Saami word oalli and is connected to the name Oulu. Another theory is that the Finnish word for flood, vuo, whose reconstructed form *uva has meant "river bed", is in the name's etymology.
Oulu has a subarctic climate with very cold, long and snowy winters and short, warm summers. Average annual temperature is 2 °C (36 °F). The average annual precipitation is 433 mm (17.05 in) falling on 98 days a year, mostly in summer.
Climate data for Oulu, Finland (1961–1990) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) −7.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.1
Average low °C (°F) −15.4
Precipitation mm (inches) 26
Avg. precipitation days 8 7 6 6 7 8 9 10 10 9 9 9 98 Sunshine hours 18.6 65.0 127.1 189.0 266.6 288.0 285.2 204.6 126.0 74.4 27.0 6.2 1,677.7 Source: Hong Kong Observatory,
There are many artists, writers and musicians resident in the city. A variety of concerts, both rock, classical music, and jazz, as well as other cultural events take place each year; for example, Oulu Music Video Festival – the host of the Air Guitar World Championships and Musixine Music Film Competition – in August, annual rock festival Qstock in July, the Oulu Music Festival in winter, the Oulunsalo Music Festival in summer, The Irish Festival of Oulu in October and the International Children's Film Festival in November. Kalmah is a melodic death metal-band from Oulu,Finland that formed in 1998.
Notable people from Oulu
- Leevi Madetoja composer
- Three former Presidents of the country, Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, Kyösti Kallio and Martti Ahtisaari
- Black metal band, Impaled Nazarene.
- Joni Pitkänen, Reijo Ruotsalainen, Mikael Granlund, NHL Ice hockey players
- Juho Mäkelä Footballer
- Tietomaa, a science center with over 150 exhibits
- Ainola Park, formerly a university botanical garden before the university was moved to Linnanmaa
- The Rapids Center, the area in the estuary of the Oulu river consisting of small islands connected with bridges, fountains in the middle of the river, and including a housing area of building blocks planned by Alvar Aalto
- The Rotuaari pedestrian street
- The Market Square with the City Library, the City Theatre and old salt and tar storehouses
- Mannerheim Park
- The Oulu Cathedral
- Hupisaaret, a large park area located in the estuary of the Oulu river
- The F. M. Franzen memorial
- The Northern Ostrobothnia museum
- The Pateniemi Sawmill Museum
- The Vehicle Museum
- The University of Oulu Botanical Gardens (situated in Linnanmaa)
- The Oulu Art Museum
- The Arctic Gallery
- Technopolis, the technology village
- Turkansaari (historical open-air museum)
Other points of interest
- Oulu Music Video Festival
- Air Guitar World Championships
- Qstock Rock Festival (website)
- Jalometalli Metal Music Festival
- Jalometalli Winterfest
- Madetoja Hall, housing the Oulu Music Centre (website) the residence of the Oulu Symphony Orchestra
- Oulu Hall (a large indoor sports facility consisting of a low dome, which looks somewhat like a landed flying saucer)
- Terwa Marathon & Run event in late May (since 1989)
- The Terva-skiing event in early March (since 1889)
- The Winter Swimming World Championship
The University of Oulu and Oulu University of Applied Sciences (formerly Oulu Polytechnic) are located in Oulu.
Oulu is home to the most northerly architecture school in the world. The school is best known for its strong regionalistic ideas for developing architecture. This movement is named "the Oulu school" ("Oulun koulu") of architecture.
Oulu is served by Oulu Airport, the second biggest airport in Finland by passenger volume. Oulu Airport is located in the neighbouring municipality of Oulunsalo, 15 kilometres (9 mi) from the city centre.
Port of Oulu is one of the busiest harbours within the Bothnian Bay. Port of Oulu includes four separate harbour areas: Vihreäsaari oil and bulk docks, Nuottasaari docks, Oritkari docks and the Toppila docks.
The shortest travel time from Oulu railway station to Helsinki Central railway station is 5 h 44 mins, operated by VR. Other destinations include, for instance, Kolari, Rovaniemi, Seinäjoki and Tampere.
The most important road in Oulu is highway 4 (E8/E75) that runs from Helsinki to Utsjoki via Lahti, Jyväskylä, Oulu, Kemi and Rovaniemi. Other highways running to and from Oulu are highway 20 to Kuusamo and highway 22 to Kajaani.
As of December 31, 2005, the active working population was employed as follows:
Industries Working population Services 36,616 Industry 11,439 Commerce 9,394 Construction 4,659 Transport 4,469 Farming and forestry 471 Unknown 1,200 Total 68,248
In 2008, the most important employers were:
Employer No. of employees City of Oulu 9,760 Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District 5,546 Nokia Group 4,700 University of Oulu 3,050 The Oulu Region Joint Authority for Education 1,651 Stora Enso Group 1,155 Kesko Group 1,054 Itella Corporation 920 Cooperative Arina Group (S Group) 830 Deaconesses' Institution 694
Ice hockey is the most popular spectator sport in Oulu. The local club Kärpät have won the SM-Liiga championship title five times (1981, 2004, 2005, 2007, and 2008). They have also been the runner-up in the IIHF European Champions Cup twice, in 2005 and 2006.
In football AC Oulu and OPS are playing in Ykkönen, the second tier of Finnish league system. Up to date only OPS have claimed Finnish football championship by winning Mestaruussarja twice in 1979 and 1980.
Oulu has two well known bandy clubs. OLS which has become Finnish champions 14 times, and OPS with their 7 championships. Currently only OLS is playing in Bandyliiga, the top level in Finnish bandy. In 2001 the city was the main venue for the Bandy World Championships.
Terwa Marathon & Run is an annual event run in late May (since 1989).
Twin towns — Sister cities
International municipal projects
The educational department takes part in Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 in Finland.
- Toppila Power Station
- ^ "Area by municipality as of 1 January 2011" (in Finnish and Swedish) (PDF). Land Survey of Finland. http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/sites/default/files/pinta-alat_2011_kunnannimenmukaan.xls. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- ^ a b "Population by municipality as of 31 January 2011" (in Finnish and Swedish). Population Information System. Population Register Center of Finland. http://vrk.fi/default.aspx?docid=4258&site=3&id=0. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- ^ "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. http://pxweb2.stat.fi/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=060_vaerak_tau_107_fi&ti=V%E4est%F6+kielen+mukaan+sek%E4+ulkomaan+kansalaisten+m%E4%E4r%E4+ja+maa%2Dpinta%2Dala+alueittain++1980+%2D+2008&path=../Database/StatFin/vrm/vaerak/&lang=3&multilang=fi. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
- ^ "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. http://pxweb2.stat.fi/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=050_vaerak_tau_104_fi&ti=V%E4est%F6+i%E4n+%281%2Dv%2E%29+ja+sukupuolen+mukaan+alueittain+1980+%2D+2008&path=../Database/StatFin/vrm/vaerak/&lang=3&multilang=fi. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- ^ "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2011". Tax Administration of Finland. 29 November 2010. http://www.vero.fi/nc/doc/download.asp?id=7996;193801. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- ^ "Uusi Oulu [New Oulu]" (in Finnish). Oulu: City of Oulu. 9 September 2011. http://www.ouka.fi/uusioulu/. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- ^ "Oulu-nimen etymologia". Scripta.kotus.fi. http://scripta.kotus.fi/www/verkkojulkaisut/julk125/oulunsalo/oulun_etymologia.shtml. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- ^ "Climatological Information for Oulu, Finland". Hong Kong Observatory. http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/europe/n_europe/oulu_e.htm.
- ^ AffectoGenimap Finland Oy (2006). Autoilijan Tiekartta 2007 – Road map (Map). 1:800,000. ISBN 978-951-593-047-7.
- ^ a b "Business and industry". Information about Oulu. Oulu: City of Oulu. 2008-09-15. http://www.ouka.fi/city/english/elinkeinot.asp. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i "Twin towns". www.ouka.fi. http://www.ouka.fi/kansainvalisyys/english/ystavyyskaupungit.html. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
- ^ "Информация о городах-побратимах" (in (Russian)). www.arhcity.ru. 2007-10-26. http://www.arhcity.ru/?page=232/0. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- ^ Bursa Metropolitan Municipality Web Site; Sister Cities.
- City of Oulu – Official website
- Oulu travel guide from Wikitravel
- 65 Degrees North: Oulu's English Language Newspaper
- Oulu This Week event calendar
Municipalities of Northern Ostrobothnia MunicipalitiesAlavieska · Haapajärvi · Haapavesi · Hailuoto · Haukipudas · Ii · Kalajoki · Kempele · Kiiminki · Kuusamo · Kärsämäki · Liminka · Lumijoki · Merijärvi · Muhos · Nivala · Oulainen · Oulu · Oulunsalo · Pudasjärvi · Pyhäjoki · Pyhäjärvi · Pyhäntä · Raahe · Reisjärvi · Sievi · Siikajoki · Siikalatva · Taivalkoski · Tyrnävä · Utajärvi · Vihanti · Yli-Ii · Ylivieska Former municipalities 50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries
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Look at other dictionaries:
Oulu — / Uleåborg Oulu Escudo … Wikipedia Español
Oulu — (Uleåborg en sueco) es un municipio de la provincia de Oulu, en Finlandia. Oulu cuenta con una población rondando los 125.000 habitantes, lo que la hace la sexta ciudad más grande de Finlandia. Intereses políticos han hecho de Oulu la ciudad… … Enciclopedia Universal
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Oulu — Oulu, Stadt und Gouvernement, s. Uleåborg … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
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Oulu — Oulun kaupunki Wappen Karte Basisdaten Staat … Deutsch Wikipedia
Oulu — 65° 00′ 50″ N 25° 28′ 01″ E / 65.014, 25.467 … Wikipédia en Français
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Oulu PS — Oulun Palloseura ist ein 1925 gegründeter Ballsportverein aus der finnischen Stadt Oulu. Die Fußballmannschaft des Vereins wurde 1979 und 1980 finnischer Meister. Zudem gibt es eine Bowling und eine Bandyabteilung. Fußballabteilung Derzeit spielt … Deutsch Wikipedia