Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales


Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales

:"For other people known as Henry, Prince of Wales see Henry, Prince of Wales".Infobox British Royalty|royal
name = Prince Henry Frederick
title = Prince of Wales; Duke of Rothesay


imgw = 160
titles = The Prince of Wales
The Duke of Cornwall
The Duke of Rothesay
royal house = House of Stuart
father = James VI of Scots, I of England
mother = Anne of Denmark
date of birth = 19 February 1594
place of birth = Stirling Castle, Scotland
date of death = Death date and age|1612|11|6|1594|2|19|df=yes
place of burial = Westminster Abbey, London|

Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales (19 February 15946 November 1612) was the eldest son of James VI of Scots, I of England and Anne of Denmark. His name comes from grandfathers Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Frederick II of Denmark.

Prince Henry was widely seen as a bright and promising heir to his father's throne. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of Typhoid Fever. Susequently, the heirship to the English and Scottish thrones passed to his younger brother Charles.

Many places in the Colony of Virginia were named in honor of Prince Henry before and after his death.

Early life

He was born at Stirling Castle and became Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland automatically on his birth. His tutor until he went to England was Sir George Lauder of The Bass, a Privy Counsellor - described as the King's "familiar councillor" [ "The Bass Rock in History" in "Transactions of the East Lothian Antiquarian and Field Naturalists' Society", vol. 5, 1948: 55] - and he was also tutored in music by Alfonso Ferrabosco the younger.

Prince of Wales

Following his father's accession to the throne of England in 1603, he became automatically Duke of Cornwall, and was invested Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in 1610, thus uniting the six automatic and two traditional Scottish and English titles held by heirs-apparent to the throne(s) ever since that date.

Later life, early death, consequences

A a young a man, Henry showed great promise and was bginning to be active in leadership matters. Among his activities, he was responsible for the reassignment of Sir Thomas Dale to the Virginia Company of London's struggling colony in North America. However, he died from typhoid fever at the age of 18. (The diagnosis can be made with reasonable certainty from written records of the post-mortem examination.) Henry was buried in Westminster Abbey. Prince Henry's death was widely regarded as a tragedy for the nation, some may consider prophetic.

Upon his death, all of Henry's automatic titles passed to his younger brother, Charles, who, until then, had lived in Henry's shadow – Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Carrick four years later. Charles was not as well-regarded as Henry had been, and after he assumed the throne following the death of his father in 1625 as King Charles I, his reign was marked by controversies, most notably conflicts with the English Parliament. Following several years of the English Civil War, he was tried and convicted of treason and was beheaded in 1649.

Ancestry


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boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;
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1= 1. Henry Frederik
2= 2. James I of England
3= 3. Anne of Denmark
4= 4. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
5= 5. Mary I, Queen of Scots
6= 6. Frederick II of Denmark
7= 7. Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
8= 8. Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox
9= 9. Margaret Douglas
10=10. James V of Scotland
11=11. Marie de Guise
12=12. Christian III of Denmark
13=13. Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
14=14. Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
15=15. Elizabeth of Denmark
16=16. John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox
17=17. Elizabeth Stewart
18=18. Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus
19=19. Margaret Tudor
20=20. James IV of Scotland
21=21. = 19. Margaret Tudor
22=22. Claude, Duke of Guise
23=23. Antoinette de Bourbon
24=24. Frederick I of Denmark
25=25. Anna of Brandenburg
26=26. Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
27=27. Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg
28=28. Albert VII, Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
29=29. Anna of Brandenburg
30=30. Frederick I of Denmark
31=31. Sophie of Pomerania

Legacy

Both Prince Henry's Grammar School in Otley, West Yorkshire, and Prince Henry's High School in Evesham, Worcestershire in England are named after him.

The developments in North America were at an important stage as Henry grew up. In the southern portion of the Colony of Virginia, a part which became now the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States after the American Revolutionary War some years later, three important locations were named in his honor: Cape Henry, Henricus, and Henrico:

*Cape Henry is located the southern point where the Chesapeake Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. It was named on April 26, 1607 by the expedition led by Christopher Newport which established Jamestown on May 14. The Cape Henry Memorial and two historic lighthouses are now located in the City of Virginia Beach adjacent to First Landing State Park.

*Sir Thomas Dale was recruited for the Virginia Colony through efforts of Prince Henry, a response to management and discipline problems with the earliest colonists. He became the High Marshall of Virginia, effectively the colony's highest ranking law enforcement officer. Dale was discouraged by unhealthy conditions at Jamestown's location, and sought a better site as a potential improved replacement for Jamestown. His progressive but ill-fated Henricus (named for Prince Henry) was established in 1612. Henricus became the major point of Henrico Cittie (sic) in 1619. It was destroyed during the Indian Massacre of 1622. The long-lost site of Henricus was rediscovered in the late 20th century, and was by then located in Chesterfield County, which itself was established in 1749. Henricus is now part of a historical park.

*Present-day Henrico County was established by order of his younger brother, King Charles I, in 1634 as one of the original eight shires of Virginia. It is located adjacent to the state capital city of Richmond, which was Henrico's county seat for several hundred years, and became separate from it as an independent city in 1871. In the 21st century, Henrico remains extant in its original (county) political form and is regarded as one of the best-managed counties in the United States. In 1992 and again in 1993, "City and State" magazine ranked Henrico County as the second best fiscally managed county in the United States. [ [http://dickglover.com/economic.php Dick Glover - Economic Development ] ]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles

*19 February 15946 November 1612: The Duke of Rothesay (Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles)
*24 March 16036 November 1612: The Duke of Cornwall
*4 June 1610 [http://www.princeofwales.gov.uk/personalprofiles/theprinceofwales/abouttheprince/previousprincesofwales/index.html The Prince of Wales – Previous Princes of Wales] ] – 6 November 1612: The Prince of Wales (Earl of Chester)

Honours

*KG: Knight of the Garter, "14 June 16036 November 1612"

Arms

As Prince of Wales, Henry Frederick bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a "label argent of three points". [ [http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/cadency.htm Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family]

References

Bibliography

*Roy Strong - "Henry, Prince of Wales and England's Lost Renaissance" (Pimlico, 2000)

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