- Alaska Native Regional Corporations
The Alaska Native Regional Corporations (Alaska Native Corporations or ANCSA Corporations) were established in 1971 when the
United States Congresspassed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act(ANCSA) which settled land and financial claims made by the Alaska Nativesand provided for the establishment of 13 regional corporations to administer those claims.
Associations, regional and village corporations
Under ANCSA the state was originally divided into twelve regions, each represented by a "Native association" responsible for the enrollment of past and present residents of the region. Individual
Alaska Nativesenrolled in these associations, and their village level equivalents, were made shareholder in the Regional and Village Corporations created by the Act. The twelve for-profit regional corporations, and a thirteenth region representing those Alaska Nativeswho were no longer residents of Alaskain 1971, were awarded the monetary and property compensation created by ANCSA. Village corporations and their shareholders received compensation through the regional corporations. The fact that many ostensibly Alaska Native villages throughout the state were not empowered by the ANCSA to form village corporations later led to a number of lawsuits.
The regional and village corporations are now owned by Alaska Native people through privately owned shares of corporation stock. Alaska Natives alive at ANCSA's enactment on December 17, 1971 who enrolled in a Native association (at the regional and/or village level) received 100 shares of stock in the respective corporation. In 2006, the 109th Congress passed S.449 which amended ANCSA, and allowed for shares to be more easily issued to those who had missed the enrollment, or were born after the enrollment period [http://www.lbblawyers.com/s449.pdf] by reducing the requirement for voting from a majority of shareholders to a majority of attending shareholders at corporation meetings. [http://www.lbblawyers.com/srpt109-112.pdf]
During the 1970s, ANCSA regional and village corporations selected land in and around native villages in the state in proportion to their enrolled populations. Village corporations own the surface rights to the lands they selected, but regional corporations own the subsurface rights of both their own selections and of those of the village corporations.
Text of the Act
The Act lays out the specifics of the corporations' status. Here is an excerpt of the relevant portion: [cite web | title=TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS, CHAPTER 33--ALASKA NATIVE CLAIMS SETTLEMENT, Section 1606. Regional Corporations. | publisher=
United States Government Printing Office| url=http://www.access.gpo.gov/uscode/title43/chapter33_.html | format=HTML]
:43 U.S.C. § 1606
::(a) Division of Alaska into twelve geographic regions; common heritage and common interest of region; area of region commensurate with operations of Native association; boundary disputes, arbitration. For purposes of this chapter, the State of Alaska shall be divided by the Secretary within one year after December 18, 1971, into twelve geographic regions, with each region composed as far as practicable of Natives having a common heritage and sharing common interests. In the absence of good cause shown to the contrary, such regions shall approximate the areas covered by the operations of the following existing Native associations:
:::(2) Bering Straits Association (
Seward Peninsula, Unalakleet, Saint Lawrence Island);
:::(3) Northwest Alaska Native Association (Kotzebue);
:::(4) Association of Village Council Presidents (southwest coast, all villages in the Bethel area, including all villages on the Lower
Yukon Riverand the Lower Kuskokwim River);
:::(7) Bristol Bay Native Association (Dillingham, Upper
:::(8) Aleut League (
Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islandsand that part of the Alaska Peninsulawhich is in the Aleut League);
:::(10) Tlingit-Haida Central Council (southeastern Alaska, including Metlakatla);
:::(11) Kodiak Area Native Association (all villages on and around
Kodiak Island); and
::(c) Establishment of thirteenth region for nonresident Natives; majority vote; Regional Corporation for thirteenth region. [...]
::(d) Incorporation; business for profit; eligibility for benefits; provisions in articles for carrying out chapter. Five incorporators within each region, named by the Native association in the region, shall incorporate under the laws of Alaska a Regional Corporation to conduct business for profit, which shall be eligible for the benefits of this chapter so long as it is organized and functions in accordance with this chapter. The articles of incorporation shall include provisions necessary to carry out the terms of this chapter.
Alaska Native Regional Corporations
The thirteen regional corporations created under ANCSA are:
Alaska Native Village Corporations
There are over 200 Alaska Native Village Corporations, the following is a partial list:
AfognakNative Corporation - [http://www.afognak.com/ Official Site]
Barrow, Alaska- Ukpeagvik Iñupiat Corporation - [http://www.ukpik.com/ Official Site]
BethelNative Corporation - [http://www.bnc-alaska.com/ Official Site]
* Chenega Corporation, a village corporation in the
Prince William Soundarea - [http://www.chenega.com/ Official Site]
Eagle River, Alaska- Eklutna, Inc. [http://www.eklutnainc.com - Official Site]
EyakVillage Corporation - [http://www.eyakcorporation.com/ Official Site]
* Goldbelt, Inc. - [http://www.goldbelt.com/ Official Site]
HaidaCorporation - [http://www.haidacorp.com/ Official Site]
Klukwan, Inc. - [http://www.klukwan.com/ Official Site]
KuskokwimCorporation (a merged village corporation for 10 middle Kuskokwim villages, including Lower Kalskag, Upper Kalskag, Aniak, Chuathbaluk, Napaimute, Crooked Creek, Red Devil, Georgetown, Sleetmute and Stony River) - [http://www.kuskokwim.com/ Official Site]
* Deloycheet, Inc. - [http://www.deloycheet.com/ Official Site]
* Shee Atiká, Inc. - [http://www.sheeatika.com/ Official Site]
OunalashkaCorporation - [http://www.ounalashka.com/ Official Site]
*cite web | title=Notice to ANCSA Shareholders: Compliance with Proxy Regulations | publisher=
Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development| url=http://www.dced.state.ak.us/bsc/pub/native.pdf | format=PDF
Kuukpik Village Corporation- This village corporation represents Nuiqsut,Alaska 99789, Inuit of the Arctic Slope Regional Corp.Kaktovik Village Corp.- " " " " Barter Island, AK. " " " " " " "Atqasuk " " " " " " Atqasuk, AK " " " " " " "Cullimuit " " " " " " Pt. Lay, AK " " " " " " "Olgoonik " " " " " " Wainwright, AK " " " " " " "Nunamuit " " " " " " Anaktuvik Pass, AK " " " " " " "
* [http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/rlinks/natives/index.html Alaska Natives & American Indians resources] from the Justice Center,
University of Alaska Anchorage.
* [http://www.lbblawyers.com/ancsa.htm The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Resource Center] run by [http://www.landye-bennett.com/ Landye Bennett Blumstein LLP] .
* [http://www.ancsa.net www.ancsa.net] a portal dedicated to ANCSA run by [http://its.karabelnikoff.net Karabelnikoff & Associates]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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