- Abbey Theatre
Address 26 Lower Abbey Street City Dublin Country Ireland Designation National Theatre of Ireland Architect Michael Scott Owned by Abbey Theatre Limited (prev. National Theatre Society) Capacity 600 Opened 1904 Rebuilt 1965 Previous names Ireland's National Theatre abbeytheatre.ie
The Abbey Theatre (Irish: Amharclann na Mainistreach), also known as the National Theatre of Ireland (Irish: Amharclann Náisiúnta na hÉireann), is a theatre located in Dublin, Ireland. The Abbey first opened its doors to the public on 27 December 1904. Despite losing its original building to a fire in 1951, it has remained active to the present day. The Abbey was the first state-subsidized theatre in the English-speaking world; from 1925 onwards it received an annual subsidy from the Irish Free State. Since July 1966, the Abbey has been located at 26 Lower Abbey Street, Dublin 1.
A theatre or circus has stood on this site on Lower Abbey Street since at least the early 19th century. In the mid-19th century, at the urging of Dublin's gentry, John Classon, an upper-class merchant, acquired the buildings then on the site, one of which had housed a circus, in order to establish a joint concert hall and civic institution for the lower classes. The Music Hall, which could seat 4000 persons, in addition to hosting concerts, frequently hosted popular variety entertainments like Pablo Fanque's Circus Royal. In the late 19th Century the Music Hall was renamed the Mechanics' Theatre, after the adjacent Mechnanic's Institute. The theatre was also known during this time as the Hibernian Theatre of Varieties, a name it retained until the building was acquired for Abbey Theatre at the beginning of the 20th Century.
In its early years, the theatre was closely associated with the writers of the Irish Literary Revival, many of whom were involved in its founding and most of whom had plays staged there. The Abbey served as a nursery for many of the leading Irish playwrights and actors of the 20th century, including William Butler Yeats, Augusta, Lady Gregory, Sean O'Casey and John Millington Synge. In addition, through its extensive programme of touring abroad and its high visibility to foreign, particularly American, audiences, it has become an important part of the Irish tourist industry.
Irish Literary Theatre
The Abbey arose from three distinct bases, the first of which was the seminal Irish Literary Theatre. Founded by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and William Butler Yeats in 1899—with assistance from George Moore—it presented plays in the Ancient Concert Rooms and the Gaiety Theatre, which brought critical approval but limited public interest.
The second base involved the work of two Irish brothers, William and Frank Fay. William worked in the 1890s with a touring company in Ireland, Scotland and Wales, while Frank was heavily involved in amateur dramatics in Dublin. After William returned to Dublin, the Fay brothers staged productions in halls around the city and eventually formed W. G. Fay's Irish National Dramatic Company, focused on the development of Irish acting talent. In April 1902, the Fays gave three performances of Æ's play Deirdre and Yeats' Cathleen Ní Houlihan in a hall in St. Theresa's Hall on Clarendon Street. The performances played to a mainly working-class audience rather than the usual middle-class Dublin theatregoers. The run was a great success, thanks in part to Maud Gonne, who played the lead in Yeats' play. The company continued at the Ancient Concert Rooms, producing works by Seumas O'Cuisin, Fred Ryan and Yeats.
The third base was financial support and experience of Annie Elizabeth Fredericka Horniman. Horniman was a middle-class Englishwoman with previous experience of theatre production, having been involved in the presentation of George Bernard Shaw's Arms and the Man in London in 1894. She came to Dublin in 1903 to act as Yeats' unpaid secretary and to make costumes for a production of his play The King's Threshold. Her money helped found the Abbey Theatre and, according to the critic Adrian Frazier, would "make the rich feel at home, and the poor—on a first visit—out of place."
Encouraged by the St Theresa's Hall success, Yeats, Lady Gregory, Æ, Martyn, and John Millington Synge founded the Irish National Theatre Society in 1903 with funding from Horniman. At first, they staged performances in the Molesworth Hall. When the Hibernian Theatre of Varieties in Lower Abbey Street and an adjacent building in Marlborough Street became available after fire safety authorities closed the Hibernia, Horniman and William Fay agreed to buy and refit the space to meet the society's needs.
On 11 May 1904, the society formally accepted Horniman's offer of the use of the building. As Horniman did not usually reside in Ireland, the royal letters patent required were granted in the name of Lady Gregory, although paid for by Horniman. The founders appointed William Fay theatre manager, responsible for training the actors in the newly established repertory company. They commissioned Yeats' brother Jack to paint portraits of all the leading figures in the society for the foyer, and hired Sarah Purser to design stained glass for the same space.
On 27 December, the curtains went up on opening night. The bill consisted of three one-act plays, On Baile's Strand and Cathleen Ní Houlihan by Yeats, and Spreading the News by Lady Gregory. On the second night, In the Shadow of the Glen by Synge replaced the second Yeats play. These two bills alternated over a five-night run. Frank Fay, playing Cúchulainn in On Baile's Strand, was the first actor on the Abbey stage. Although Horniman had designed the costumes, neither she nor Lady Gregory was present. Horniman had returned to England. In addition to providing funding, her chief role with the Abbey over the coming years was to organise publicity and bookings for their touring productions in London and provincial England.
In 1905 without properly consulting Horniman, Yeats, Lady Gregory and Synge decided to turn the theatre into a limited liability company, the National Theatre Society Ltd. Annoyed by this treatment, she hired Ben Iden Payne, a former Abbey employee, to help run a new repertory company which she founded in Manchester.
The new Abbey Theatre found great popular success, and large crowds attended many of its productions. The Abbey was fortunate in having Synge as a key member, as he was then considered one of the foremost English-language dramatists. The theatre staged many plays by eminent or soon-to-be eminent authors, including Yeats, Lady Gregory, Moore, Martyn, Padraic Colum, George Bernard Shaw, Oliver St John Gogarty, F. R. Higgins, Thomas MacDonagh, Lord Dunsany, T. C. Murray, James Cousins and Lennox Robinson. Many of these authors served on the board, and it was during this time that the Abbey gained its reputation as a writers' theatre.
The Abbey's fortunes worsened in January 1907 when the opening of Synge's The Playboy of the Western World resulted in civil disturbance. The troubles (since known as the Playboy Riots) were encouraged, in part, by nationalists who believed the theatre was insufficiently political and who took offence at Synge's use of the word 'shift', as it was known at the time as a symbol representing Kitty O'Shea and adultery, and hence was seen as a slight on the virtue of Irish womanhood. Much of the crowd rioted loudly, and the actors performed the remainder of the play in dumbshow. The theatre's decision to call in the police further roused anger of the nationalists. Although press opinion soon turned against the rioters and the protests faded, management of the Abbey was shaken. They chose not to stage Synge's next—and last completed—play, The Tinker's Wedding (1908), for fear of further disturbances. That same year, the Fay brothers' association with the theatre ended when they emigrated to the United States; Lennox Robinson took over the Abbey's day-to-day management.
In 1909, Shaw's The Shewing-Up of Blanco Posnet led to further protests. The subsequent discussion occupied a full issue of the theatre's journal The Arrow. Also that year, the proprietors decided to make the Abbey independent of Annie Horniman, who had indicated a preference for this course. Relations with Horniman had been tense, partly because she wished to be involved in choosing which plays were to be performed and when. As a mark of respect for the death of King Edward VII, an understanding existed that Dublin theatres were to close on the night of 7 May 1910. Robinson, however, kept the Abbey open. When Horniman heard of Robinson's decision, she severed her connections with the company. By her own estimate, she had invested £10,350—worth approximately $1 million in 2007 US dollars—on the project.
With the loss of Horniman, Synge, and the Fays, the Abbey under Robinson tended to drift, suffering from falling public interest and box office returns. This trend was halted for a time by the emergence of Sean O'Casey as an heir to Synge. O'Casey's career as a dramatist began with The Shadow of a Gunman, staged by the Abbey in 1923. This was followed by Juno and the Paycock in 1924, and The Plough and the Stars in 1926. Theatregoers arose in riots over the last play, in a way reminiscent of those that had greeted the Playboy 19 years earlier. Concerned about public reaction, the Abbey rejected O'Casey's next play. He emigrated to London shortly thereafter.
In 1924, Yeats and Lady Gregory offered the Abbey to the government of the Free State as a gift to the Irish people. Although the government refused, the following year Minister of Finance Ernest Blythe arranged an annual government subsidy of £850 for the Abbey. This made the company the first state-supported theatre in the English-speaking world. The subsidy allowed the theatre to avoid bankruptcy, but the amount was too small to rescue it from financial difficulty.
The Abbey School of Acting and the Abbey School of Ballet were set up that year. The latter was led by Ninette de Valois—who had provided choreography for a number of Yeats' plays—and ran until 1933.
The Peacock and the Gate
Around this time the company acquired additional space, allowing them to create a small experimental theatre, the Peacock, in the ground floor of the main theatre. In 1928, Hilton Edwards and Micheál MacLiammoir launched the Gate Theatre, initially using the Peacock to stage works by European and American dramatists. The Gate primarily sought work from new Irish playwrights and, despite the new space, the Abbey entered a period of artistic decline.
This is illustrated by the story of how one new work was said to have come to the Gate Theatre. Denis Johnston reportedly submitted his first play, Shadowdance, to the Abbey; however, Lady Gregory rejected it, returning it to the author with “The Old Lady says No” written across the title page. Johnston decided to re-title the play. The Gate staged The Old Lady Says 'No' in The Peacock in 1928. (Note: academic critics Joseph Ronsley and Christine St. Peter have questioned the veracity of this story.)
The tradition of the Abbey as primarily a writers' theatre survived Yeats' withdrawal from day-to-day involvement. Frank O'Connor sat on the board from 1935 to 1939, served as managing director from 1937, and had two plays staged during this period. He was alienated from and unable to cope with many of the other board members. They held O'Connor's past adultery against him. Although he fought formidably to retain his position, soon after Yeats died, the board began machinations to remove O'Connor.
During the 1940s and 1950s, the staple fare at the Abbey was comic farce set in the idealised peasant world of playwright Éamon de Valera. If it had ever existed, it was no longer considered relevant by most Irish citizens. As a result, audience numbers continued to decline. This drift might have been more dramatic but popular actors, including F. J. McCormick, and dramatists, including George Shiels, could still draw a crowd. Austin Clarke staged events for his Dublin Verse Speaking Society—later the Lyric Theatre—at the Peacock from 1941 to 1944 and the Abbey from 1944 to 1951.
On 17 July 1951, fire destroyed the Abbey Theatre, with only the Peacock surviving intact. The company leased the old Queen's Theatre in September and continued in residence there until 1966. The Queen's had been home to the Happy Gang, a team of comedians who specialised in popular skits, farces and pantomimes and drew wide audiences. With its continued diet of 'peasant comedies', the new tenants were not far removed from the old.
Neither Brendan Behan nor Samuel Beckett, two of the more interesting Irish dramatists to emerge in the 1950s, featured in these productions. In February 1961, the ruins of the Abbey were demolished. The board had plans for rebuilding with a design by the Irish architect Michael Scott. On 3 September 1963, the President of Ireland, Éamon de Valera, laid the foundation stone for the new theatre. The Abbey reopened on 18 July 1966.
A new building; a new generation of dramatists, including such figures as Hugh Leonard, Brian Friel and Tom Murphy; and tourism that included the National Theatre as a key cultural attraction, helped revive the theatre. Beginning in 1957, the theatre's participation in the Dublin Theatre Festival aided its revival. Plays such as Brian Friel's Philadelphia Here I Come! (1964), The Faith Healer (1979) and Dancing at Lughnasa (1990); Tom Murphy's A Whistle In the Dark (1961) and The Gigli Concert (1983); and Hugh Leonard's Da (1973) and A Life (1980), helped raise the Abbey's international profile through successful runs in the West End in London, and on Broadway in New York City.
In December 2004, the theatre celebrated its centenary with events that included performances of the original programme by amateur dramatic groups and a production of Michael West's Dublin By Lamplight, originally staged by Annie Ryan for The Corn Exchange company at the Project Arts Centre in November 2004. Despite the centenary, not all was well. Audience numbers were falling; the Peacock was closed for lack of money; the theatre was near bankruptcy, and the staff felt the threat of huge lay-offs.
In September 2004 two members of the theatre's advisory council, playwrights Jimmy Murphy and Ulick O'Connor, had tabled a motion of no confidence in Artistic Director Ben Barnes. They criticised Barnes for touring with a play in Australia during the deep financial and artistic crisis at home. Barnes returned and temporarily held his position. The debacle put the Abbey under great public scrutiny. On 12 May 2005, Barnes and Managing Director Brian Jackson resigned after it was found that the theatre's deficit of €1.85 million had been underestimated. The new director, Fiach Mac Conghail, due to start in January 2006, took over in May 2005.
On 20 August 2005, the Abbey Theatre Advisory Council approved a plan to dissolve the Abbey's owner, the National Theatre Society, and replace it with a company limited by guarantee, the Abbey Theatre Limited. After strong debate, the board accepted the program. Basing its actions on this plan, the Arts Council of Ireland awarded the Abbey €25.7 million in January 2006 to be spread over three years. The grant represented an approximate 43 percent increase in the Abbey's revenues and was the largest grant ever awarded by the Arts Council. The new company was established on 1 February 2006, with the announcement of a new Abbey Board chaired by High Court Judge Bryan McMahon. In March 2007, the larger auditorium in the theatre was radically reconfigured by Jean-Guy Lecat as part of a major upgrade of the theatre.
More than 20 writers have been commissioned by the Abbey since Mac Conghail was appointed director in May 2005. The Abbey is also producing new Irish plays commissioned and developed by London's Royal Court Theatre; Tom Murphy's Alice Trilogy and Marina Carr's Woman and Scarecrow are examples. The Abbey is also developing a relationship with the Public Theater in New York, where it has presented two new plays; Terminus by Mark O'Rowe and Sam Shepard's Kicking a Dead Horse.
After discussions over many years, the Irish government announced in 2007 that a new theatre building would be procured for the Abbey by way of a public-private partnership contract for design, construction, financing and maintenance. This building will be in Dublin's "Docklands" area and will comprise three auditorium spaces, including a 700-seat main theatre, a 350-seat secondary performance space and a 150-seat studio theatre, along with rehearsal and education facilities, storage, wardrobe, archive and office space, and one or more bars and restaurants and a bookshop.
The general and artistic operation of the new theatre will continue to be the responsibility of the Abbey Theatre Amharclann na Mainistreach Ltd.
- ^ "About the Abbey". abbeytheatre.ie. Retrieved on 2 April 2008.
- ^ Denard, Hugh (February 25, 2011). "Abbey Theatre, 1904, digitally reconstructing Dublin's original Abbey Theatre". blog.oldabbeytheatre.net. http://blog.oldabbeytheatre.net/archives/298. Retrieved 2011-09-20.
- ^ Ferris, Catherine (April 2011). ""The Use of Newspapers as a Source for Musicological Research: A Case Study of Dublin Musical Life 1840-44"". National University of Ireland, Maynooth. http://eprints.nuim.ie/2577/1/Catherine_Ferris_PhD_2011.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-20.
- ^ The Caledonian Mercury, 3 April 1851
- ^ "Dáil Debate". Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas, Dáil Debate, Vol. 607 No. 4, 13 October 2005. Retrieved on 23 January 2008.
- ^ Foster (2003), pp. 486, 662.
- ^ Kavanagh, p. 30.
- ^ Frazier, Adrian. Behind the Scenes: Yeats, Horniman, and the Struggle for the Abbey Theater, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990. p. 172
- ^ Mikhail, E. H. The Abbey Theatre: Interviews and Recollections', Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, October 1987. p. 97. ISBN 0-389-20616-4
- ^ McCormack, W. J. (ed.). The Blackwell Companion to Modern Irish Culture, Blackwell Publishing, 28 January 2002. p. 7. ISBN 0-631-22817-9
- ^ Frazier, p. 172.
- ^ Hunt, p. 61.
- ^ Richards, Shaun. The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-Century Irish Drama, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, February, 2004. p. 63. ISBN 0-521-00873-5
- ^ Butler Yeats, William. The Collected Letters of W. B. Yeats: Volume IV: 1905–1907, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Republished 1996. p. 616. ISBN 0-19-812684-0
- ^ Price, Alan Synge and Anglo-Irish Drama, London: Methuen, 1961. pp. 15, 25.
- ^ Isherwood, Charles. "A Seductive Fellow Returns, but in a Darker Mood", New York Times, 28 October 2004.
- ^ Leland, Mary. The Lie of the Land: Journeys Through Literary Cork, Cork: Cork University Press, 2000. p. 238. ISBN 1-85918-231-3
- ^ Welch, Robert, Stewart, Bruce. The Oxford Companion to Irish Literature, Oxford: Oxford University Press, January, 1996. p. 3. ISBN 0-19-866158-4
- ^ Kavanagh, pp. 118, 127, 137.
- ^ Kavanagh, p. 135.
- ^ Collins, Glenn. "O'Casey's Widow Muses on His Friendship With Shaw", New York Times, 13 November 1989. Retrieved on 21 January 2008.
- ^ Kavanagh, pp. 125–126.
- ^ Sorley Walker, Kathrine. "The Festival and the Abbey: Ninette de Valois' Early Choreography, 1925–1934, Part One". Dance Chronicle, Volume 7, No. 4, 1984–85. pp. 379–412.
- ^ Welsh (1999), p. 108.
- ^ Welch, Robert, and Stewart, Bruce. The Oxford Companion to Irish Literature, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. p. 275. ISBN 0-19-866158-4
- ^ Bartlett, Rebecca Ann. Choice's Outstanding Academic Books, 1992–1997: Reviews of Scholarly Titles, Association of College & Research Libraries, 1998. p. 136. ISBN 0-8389-7929-7
- ^ Pierce, David. "Irish Writing in the Twentieth Century: A Reader". Cork: Cork University Press, September, 2000. p. 743. ISBN 1-85918-208-9
- ^ Welch, p. 135.
- ^ Haggerty, Bridget. "Irish Landmarks: The Abbey Theatre". irishcultureandcustoms.com. Retrieved on 21 January 2008.
- ^ Harmon, Maurice. Austin Clarke 1896–1974: A Critical Introduction, Rowman & Littlefield, July, 1989. p. 116. ISBN 0-389-20864-7
- ^ Lavery, Brian. "Deficit, Cutbacks and Crisis for Abbey Theater at 100". New York Times, 16 September 2004. Retrieved on 21 January 2007.
- ^ Hogan, Louise. "Judge appointed to lead Abbey". Irish Examiner, 30 September 2005. Retrieved on 21 January 2007.
- ^ a b Lavery, Brian. "The Abbey Theater's Fiach Mac Conghail Takes a Cue From Yeats", New York Times, 25 March 2006. Retrieved on 23 January 2007.
- ^ Kilroy, Ian. "Abbey Theatre lands historic €25.7m three-year grant". Irish Exatminer, 25 January 2006. Retrieved on 25 January 2008.
- ^ "MacConghail takes charge at Abbey Theatre", The Stage Newspaper, 15 February 2005. Retrieved on 21 January 2007.
- ^ Dublin, Ireland, 18 December 2007: Department of Arts, Sport and Tourism, formal notice of project and tender for Advisors to Secure PPP Partners
- Fitz-Simon, Christopher. The Abbey Theatre—Ireland's National Theatre: The First 100 Years. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2003. ISBN 0-500-28426-1
- Foster, R. F. W. B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. II: The Arch-Poet 1915–1939. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-818465-4.
- Frazier, Adrian. Behind the Scenes: Yeats, Horniman, and the Struggle for the Abbey Theatre. Berkeley: University of California, March 1990. ISBN 0-520-06549-2
- Gregory, Lady Augusta. Our Irish Theatre. New York and London: Knickerbocker Press, 1913.
- Grene, Nicholas. The Politics of Irish Drama: Plays in Context from Boucicault to Friel. Cambridge University Press, February 1999. ISBN 0-521-66536-1
- Hogan, Robert, and Richard Burnham. Modern Irish Drama: A Documentary History. Vols. I-VI..
- Hunt, Hugh. The Abbey: Ireland's National Theater, 1904–1979. New York: Columbia University Press, October 1979. ISBN 0-231-04906-4
- Igoe, Vivien. A Literary Guide to Dublin. Methuen, April 1995. ISBN 0-413-69120-9
- Kavanagh, Peter. The Story of the Abbey Theatre. New York: Devin-Adair, 1950.
- Kilroy, James. The "Playboy" Riots. Dublin: Dolmen Pres, 1971. ASIN: B000LNLIXO
- McGlone, James P. Ria Mooney: The Life and Times of the Artistic Director of the Abbey Theatre. McFarland and Company, February, 2002. ISBN 0-7864-1251-8
- Robinson, Lennox. Ireland's Abbey Theatre. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1951.
- Ryan, Philip B. The Lost Theatres of Dublin. The Badger Press, September 1998. ISBN 0-9526076-1-1
- Welch, Robert. The Abbey Theatre, 1899–1999: Form and Pressure. Oxford: Oxford University Press, February 1999. ISBN 0-19-926135-0
- Abbey Theatre homepage.
- The Abbey and the genius of Irish theatre.
- Denis Johnston and The Old Lady Says 'No'
- Dublin's Abbey in centenary crisis—Guardian Unlimited.
- Barnes to stay on as Abbey Theatre director—RTÉ News
- Arts Council voices concern over Abbey—RTÉ News
- Resignations—RTÉ News.
- Abbey Theatre Collection at Southern Illinois University Carbondale Special Collections Research Center
Theatres in Ireland Republic of IrelandActiveAbbey Theatre · Amharclann Ghaoth Dobhair · Andrews Lane Theatre · An Grianán Theatre · Cork Opera House · Everyman Palace Theatre · Focus Theatre · Gate Theatre · Gaiety Theatre, Dublin · Grand Canal Theatre · Lambert Puppet Theatre · Lyric Theatre, Dublin · Olympia Theatre, Dublin · Passionfruit Theatre · Project Arts Centre · SFX City Theatre, Dublin · Siamsa Tíre · Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe · The Helix · The Mill Theatre, DundrumFormer Northern Ireland
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Abbey theatre — L’Abbey Theatre (« Théâtre de l’Abbaye » en français, parfois surnommé « l’Abbaye » et également désigné sous le nom de National Theatre of Ireland (Théâtre national d’Irlande), est une salle de théâtre située à Dublin, en… … Wikipédia en Français
Abbey Theatre — [ æbi θɪətə, englisch], 1904 in Dublin von Lady Augusta Gregory, J. M. Synge und W. B. Yeats gegründetes irisches Nationaltheater (1951 durch Feuer zerstört, Neueröffnung 1966); es sollte die kulturelle Identität des irischen Volkes deutlich… … Universal-Lexikon
Abbey Theatre — Plakat des Abbey für die Eröffnungsnacht Das Abbey Theatre ist das irische Nationaltheater in Dublin, Irland. Es wurde 1898 gegründet, um Werke irischer Autoren und irischer Thematik zu zeigen und zu einer kulturellen Identität Irlands… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Abbey Theatre — Teatro Abbey Exterior del Teatro Abbey en 2006 … Wikipedia Español
Abbey Theatre — 53°20′54″N 6°15′26″O / 53.34833, 6.25722 … Wikipédia en Français
Abbey Theatre — a theater in Dublin associated with the Irish National Theatre Society (founded 1901) and the dramas of Synge, Yeats, and Lady Gregory. * * * Dublin theatre. It developed from the Irish Literary Theatre, founded in 1899 by William Butler Yeats… … Universalium
Abbey Theatre — Teatro de Dublín. Se formó a partir del Teatro Literario Irlandés, fundado en 1899 por William Butler Yeats y Lady Augusta Gregory para fomentar la dramaturgia nacional. Después de mudarse en 1904 con el elenco a un teatro remozado de la calle… … Enciclopedia Universal
Abbey Theatre — /ˌæbi ˈθɪətə/ (say .abee theartuh) noun a theatre in Dublin associated with the Irish National Theatre Society (founded 1901) and the dramas of Synge, Yeats, and Brendan Behan … Australian English dictionary
Abbey Theatre — a theater in Dublin associated with the Irish National Theatre Society (founded 1901) and the dramas of Synge, Yeats, and Lady Gregory … Useful english dictionary
Theatre de l'Abbaye — Abbey Theatre L’Abbey Theatre (« Théâtre de l’Abbaye » en français, parfois surnommé « l’Abbaye » et également désigné sous le nom de National Theatre of Ireland (Théâtre national d’Irlande), est une salle de théâtre située à… … Wikipédia en Français