- Wang Anshi
Wang Anshi (zh-cpw|c=王安石|p=Wáng Ānshí|w=Wang An-shih;
1021- May 21, 1086[6th day of the 4th month of Yuanyou 1 (元祐元年四月六日), which corresponds to May 21, 1086 in the Julian calendar.] ) was a Chinese economist, statesman, chancellor and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted controversial, major socioeconomic reforms. These reforms constituted the core concepts and motives of the Reformists, while their nemesis, Chancellor Sima Guang, led the Conservative faction against them.
In economics, his reforms tried to expand the use of money and break up monopolies. In military affairs, he supported the use of local militias; and in education and government, he expanded the examination system and tried to suppress
nepotism. Though successful for a while, he eventually fell out of favor, and his reforms were reversed.
Under the Song Dynasty, the unprecedented development of large estates, whose owners managed to evade paying their share of
taxes, resulted in an increasingly heavy burden of taxation falling on the peasantry. The drop in state revenues, a succession of budget deficits, and widespread inflationprompted the Emperor Shenzong of Songto seek advice from Wang.
Though Wang was from the south, he came from a family of "
jinshi" degree winners. He himself placed fourth in the palace degree exams in 1042. He spent the first twenty years of his career in regional government in the Lower Yangtze region. During this time, he gained practical experience in meeting the needs of the common people. This experience guided his analysis in formulating solutions to what ailed Song society. [ [Mote ch. 6] ]
Wang believed that the
statewas responsible for providing its citizens the essentials for a decent living standard: "The state should take the entire management of commerce, industry, and agricultureinto its own hands, with a view to succoring the working classes and preventing them from being ground into the dust by the rich." Fact|date=June 2007
Wang came to power as 2nd privy council in 1069 [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/635311/Wang-Anshi] . It was here that he formulated and promulgated New Policies ("xin fa" 新法). His reforms were classified into three groups: 1) state finance and trade, 2) defense and social order, and 3) education and improving of governance.Some of the finance reforms included paying cash for labor in place of
corvee labor, increase the minting of copper coins, improve management of trade, implementing plans to lend farmers money when they planted to be repaid at harvest. He believed that the common people and their well being were the key to the strength of the state and thus he made it a priority to address their needs. [ [Mote p. 139] ] To destroy speculationand break up the monopolies, he also initiated a system of fixed commodity prices; and he appointed boards to regulate wages and plan pensions for the aged and unemployed.
A centerpiece of defense and social order reforms was the institution of the
baojia systemof organizing households. This was done to ensure collective responsibility in society and was later used to strengthen local defense. He also proposed the creation of systems to breed military horses, the more efficient manufacture of weapons and training of the militia. [ [Mote p. 140] ]
To improve education and government, he sought to break down the barrier between clerical and official careers as well as improving their supervision to prevent connections being used for personal gain. Tests in law, military affairs and medicine were added to the examination system, with mathematics added in 1104. The National Academy was transformed into a real school rather than simply a holding place for officials waiting for appointments. However, there was deep-seated resistance to the education reforms as it hurt bureaucrats coming in under the old system [ [Mote p. 141] ]
Modern observers have noted how remarkably close his theories were to modern concepts of the
welfare stateand planned economy. Fact|date=June 2007
Although Wang had the alliance of such prominent court figures as
Shen Kuo, imperial scholar-officialssuch as Su Dongpoand Ouyang Xiubitterly opposed these reforms on the grounds of tradition. They believed Wang's reforms were against the moral fundamentals of the Two Emperorsand would therefore prevent the Song from experiencing the prosperity and peace of the ancients. The tide tilted in favor of the conservatives due to renewed foreign conflict. He was even temporarily removed from power and imprisoned in 1075. Fact|date=June 2007
Like many Chinese officials of the era, he career experienced many ups and downs, but the beginning of the end came in 1074. A famine in northern China drove many farmers off their lands. Their circumstances were made worse by the debts they had incurred from the seasonal loans granted under Wang’s reform initiatives. The situation was made even worse when local officials insisted on collecting on the loans as the farmers were leaving their land. This crisis was depicted as being Wang’s fault. The
empress dowagerwas also an opponent of Wang. Wang wanted to resign, but the emperor still supported him, giving him high honors and an appointment to Jiangning (present-day Nanjing.)
He was recalled by the emperor the following year, but now he was seen as vulnerable and was openly attacked from groups of conservatives. Wang returned to Nanjing, which be preferred to Kaifeng. He wrote and engaged in scholarship through to his death in 1086. [ [Mote p. 141-42] ]
With Shenzhong's death in 1085, Wang was permanently ousted and the New Policies rolled back.
In addition to his political achievements, Wang Anshi was a noted poet. He wrote poems in the "shi" form, modelled on those of
Du Fu. He was traditionally classed as one of the "Eight Great Prose Masters of the Tang and Song" (唐宋八大家).
History of the Song Dynasty
Chancellor of China
Anderson, Gregory E., " [http://www.pacificrim.usfca.edu/research/perspectives/anderson.pdf To Change China: A Tale of Three Reformers] ", [http://www.pacificrim.usfca.edu/research/perspectives/index.html "Asia Pacific: Perspectives"] , 1:1 (2001).
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Wang Anshi — Wáng Ānshí Familienname: Wáng (王) Rufname: Ānshí (安石) … Deutsch Wikipedia
WANG ANSHI — [WANG NGAN CHE] (1021 1086) En 1058, alors qu’il n’est encore qu’un fonctionnaire provincial réputé pour son intégrité et son efficacité, Wang Anshi adresse au trône son Mémoire de dix mille mots (Wanyanshu ), où il suggère une série de mesures… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Wang Anshi — Wang Anshi. Wang Anshi (王安石, 8 décembre 1021 21 mai 1086) est un homme d’État chinois réformateur dont les mesures se heurtent à l’opposition de la cour et du peuple. Il est aussi un poète et un prosateur … Wikipédia en Français
Wang Anshi — Wang Anshi. Este es un nombre chino; el apellido es Wang. Wang Anshi (王安石, 1021 1086) fue un estadista chino que ocupó el cargo de Primer Ministro de China. Sus medidas le valieron la enemistad de la corte y el pueblo. Fue además escritor de… … Wikipedia Español
Wang Anshi — [ ʃi], Wang An shih, chinesischer Staatsmann und Literat, * in der Provinz Jiangxi 18. 12. 1021, ✝ Jiangning (Provinz Jiangsu) Mitte Mai/Mitte Juni 1086. Als Kanzler (1069 74/76) fast vorbehaltlos vom Songkaiser Shenzong (1068 85/86)… … Universal-Lexikon
Wang Anshi — (王安石, 1021 1086) fue un hombre de estado y un gran reformador, sus medidas le valieron la enemistad de la corte y el pueblo, fue además escritor de prosa y poesía. * * * o Wang An shih (1021, Linchuan, provincia de Jiangsu, China–1086, Jiangning … Enciclopedia Universal
Wang Anshi — or Wang An shih born 1021, Linchuan, Jiangsu province, China died 1086, Jiangning, Jiangsu Chinese poet and government reformer of the Song dynasty. His New Policies of 1069–76 sparked academic controversy that continued for centuries. He created … Universalium
Wang An-schi — Wáng Ānshí Familienname: Wáng (王) Rufname: Ānshí (安石) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Anshi — bezeichnet: ein japanisches Lehen: Anshi (Han) Anshi ist der Vorname folgender Personen: Wang Anshi (1021–1086), chinesischer Staatsmann Wei Anshi (651–714), chinesischer Herzog Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärun … Deutsch Wikipedia
Wang (homonymie) — Wang Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Wang (王) est un patronyme chinois. Wang correspond en effet à la prononciation en mandarin du sinogramme 王 (« roi ») dans les… … Wikipédia en Français