Nu metal


Nu metal
Nu metal
Stylistic origins Alternative metal, rap metal, grunge, funk metal, heavy metal, hip hop, industrial metal[1][2][3]
Cultural origins Early 1990s, United States
Typical instruments Guitar, bass, vocals, drums, synthesizer, sampling, turntables, rapping, screaming
Mainstream popularity Late 1990s – early 2000s, Low mainstream popularity since then.
Regional scenes
California, Midwestern United States, United States
Other topics
List of bands

Nu metal (also known as nü-metal,[4] aggro-metal,[1][5] neo-metal[6] or new metal) is a subgenre[7] of heavy metal.[4][8][9][10] It is a fusion genre[9] which combines elements of heavy metal with other genres, including grunge and hip hop. The genre gained mainstream success in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Contents

Characteristics

Bands associated with nu metal derive influence from a variety of diverse styles, including electronic music, funk, glam metal, gothic rock, grunge, hardcore punk, hip hop, industrial metal, jazz, post-punk and synthpop.[2][1][9][11][12] Also, nu metal derives influence from multiple subgenres of heavy metal including rap metal, funk metal, alternative metal and thrash metal.[2][1][9]

Nu metal music is mostly syncopated and based on riffs.[4] Mid-song breakdowns and lack of virtuosity contrasts it with other metal subgenres.[4] Another way in which nu metal is contrasted with other metal subgenres is its emphasis on rhythm, tending to more elements of groove metal in rhythm.[9] Similarities with other heavy metal subgenres include its use of common time, distorted guitars, power chords and note structures primarily revolving around Dorian, Aeolian or Phrygian modes.[4]

Traditional nu metal bands use seven-string guitars over traditional six-string guitars.[2] Seven-string guitars, which are sometimes downtuned[10] to increase heaviness, resulted in bass guitarists using five-string and six string instruments.[2] DJs are also sometimes used for additional rhythmic instrumentation such as music sampling, scratching and electronic backgrounds.[2]

Nu metal vocal styles range between melodic singing, rapping, screaming and death growling, sometimes using multiple of these styles within one song. The lyrics of many nu metal bands which found mainstream popularity focus on pain and personal alienation rather than the themes of other metal subgenres.[2][12] In many cases this is a trait borrowed from grunge bands and is sometimes seen as a disadvantage of the genre; Q Magazine argues that many of its "leading lights [focused on] abandonment issues they should have left behind on their first day of big school".

Nu metal uses the traditional pop structure of verses, choruses and bridges, contrasting it with other metal genres such as thrash and death metal.[13]

Nu metal fashion can include baggy shirts, cargo pants, sweatpants, body piercings, tattoos, and in some cases jumpsuits and sweatsuits.[14][15]

History

Rock bands of the 1980s and 90s including Faith No More, Tool, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Nirvana, Jane's Addiction and Rage Against the Machine have been identified as laying groundwork for the development of nu metal by popularising elements of the genre, such as combining aggressive riffs with pop structures and drawing influence from a variety of genres within and outside of heavy metal.[16][17] The fusion of alternative rock and heavy metal these bands developed is referred to as alternative metal.

Many of the first nu metal bands came from California.[18] Its origins are often attributed to the work of producer Ross Robinson, sometimes called "The Godfather of Nu Metal", who worked with acts such as Korn, Deftones and Limp Bizkit, producing their first albums and helping create the sound that defined them.[16] Korn pioneered the nu metal sound with the release of their demo album in 1993.[19] The most "pure" form of nu-metal is considered to be the one contained in their debut studio album, Korn.

Nu metal gained mainstream success through MTV and Ozzy Osbourne's 1995 introduction of Ozzfest, which led the media to talk of a resurgence of heavy metal.[20] Also, the 30th anniversary of Woodstock (Woodstock 99) featured nu metal bands, notably Korn and Limp Bizkit.[21]

Established artists such as Sepultura,[22] Slayer,[23] Vanilla Ice[24] and Machine Head[25] released albums which critics felt drew from the style. In Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal, Ian Christie wrote that the genre demonstrated that "pancultural metal could pay off".[26] However, some fans of traditional heavy metal did not fully embrace the style.[26] In 2001, nu metal reached its commercial peak with albums like Slipknot's Iowa, P.O.D.'s Satellite, Limp Bizkit's Chocolate Starfish and the Hot Dog Flavored Water, Linkin Park's Hybrid Theory and Staind's Break the Cycle. New bands also emerged like Papa Roach, whose major label debut Infest became a platinum hit.[27]

By 2002 there were signs that nu metal's mainstream popularity was declining.[28] Several factors contributed to this, including oversaturation of the market, and a stigma associated with the genre.[29] Korn's long awaited fifth album Untouchables, and Papa Roach's second album Lovehatetragedy, did not sell as well as their previous releases, while nu metal bands were played less frequently on radio stations and MTV began focusing on pop punk and emo.[29] Since then, many nu metal bands have shifted musical direction towards more popular styles.[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Genre: Alternative Metal". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/explore/style/d2697. Retrieved 22 May 2010. "By the latter half of the '90s, most new alt-metal bands were playing some combination of simplified thrash, rap, industrial, hardcore punk, and grunge. This new sound was more about grinding textures... Korn, Marilyn Manson, and Limp Bizkit were the biggest stars of this new movement -- sometimes dubbed aggro-metal, nu-metal..." 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g McIver, Joel (2002). "How is nu-metal different from old metal?". Nu-metal: The Next Generation of Rock & Punk. Omnibus Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0711992096. 
  3. ^ Bowar, Chad. "Heavy Metal: More Metal Genres". About.com. The New York Times Company. http://heavymetal.about.com/od/heavymetal101/a/101_history_2.htm. Retrieved April 28, 2010. "Combining heavy metal riffs with hip-hop influences and rapped lyrics, this genre became very popular in the late '90s through the early 2000's and then fell from favor." 
  4. ^ a b c d e Pieslak, Jonathan (2008). "Sound, text and identity in Korn’s ‘Hey Daddy’". Popular Music 27: 35–52. doi:10.1017/S0261143008001451. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=1584104&jid=&volumeId=&issueId=01&aid=1584100&bodyId=&membershipNumber=&societyETOCSession=. 
  5. ^ Van Pelt, Doug (2004). "Static X". Rock Stars on God: 20 Artists Speak Their Mind about Faith. Relevant Media Group. p. 180. ISBN 0972927697. 
  6. ^ "Amen > Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  7. ^ Wilson, Scott (2008). Great Satan's rage: American negativity and rap/metal in the age of supercapitalism. Manchester University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0719074630, 9780719074639. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=nF8YAQAAIAAJ&q=%22nu+metal%22+subgenre&dq=%22nu+metal%22+subgenre&hl=ko&ei=ZxDvS-S8O8TzOaXl0KMI&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBQ. 
  8. ^ Halnon, Karen Bettez (2006). "Heavy Metal Carnival and Dis-alienation: The Politics of Grotesque Realism". Symbolic Interaction 29 (1): 33–48. doi:10.1525/si.2006.29.1.33. http://caliber.ucpress.net/doi/abs/10.1525/si.2006.29.1.33. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Tompkins, Joseph (2009). "What’s the Deal with Soundtrack Albums? Metal Music and the Customized Aesthetics of Contemporary Horror". Cinema Journal 49 (1). doi:10.1353/cj.0.0155. http://google.com/scholar?q=cache:vLzBfv9npncJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=en&as_sdt=2000&as_vis=1. 
  10. ^ a b Robinson, Greg (2008). Ozzfest. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 10. ISBN 1404217568, 9781404217560. http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=lang_en. 
  11. ^ Iannini, Tommaso (2003). Nu Metal. Giunti. p. 12. ISBN 8809030516. http://books.google.com/books?id=ILAzJcugjDsC&pg=PA130&dq=rage+against+the+machine+nu+metal&lr=&cd=30#v=onepage&q=postpunk&f=false. 
  12. ^ a b Kahn-Harris, Keith (2007). "Introduction: From heavy metal to extreme metal". Extreme metal: music and culture on the edge. Berg Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 1845203992. 
  13. ^ Buts, Jeroen. "5.1". The Thematical and Stylistic Evolution of Heavy Metal Lyrics and Imagery From the 70s to Present Day. p. 80. "Also, the genre combined a low tuned guitar sound and many other thrash, industrial and death metal traits within a structure which was much more traditional and akin to Pop music (e.g. intro-verse-chorus-verse-chorus-bridge-chorus-outro)."
  14. ^ Mulholland Garry (October 4, 2002). "Nu-metal gurus". The Independent (Independent Print Limited). http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/numetal-gurus-613089.html. Retrieved April 29, 2010. 
  15. ^ Krovatin, Chris (February 26, 2010). "Final Six:The Six Best/Worst Things to Come out of Nu-Metal". Revolver (Future US, Inc.). http://www.revolvermag.com/features/post/final-six-the-six-best-worst-things-to-come-out-of-nu-metal/. Retrieved April 29, 2010. 
  16. ^ a b McIver, Joel (2002). "It's their fault...the people who made it happen". Nu-metal: The Next Generation of Rock & Punk. Omnibus Press. pp. 16–23. ISBN 0711992096. 
  17. ^ Popular music genres: an introduction. Edinburgh University Press. 2004. p. 149. ISBN 0748617450, 9780748617456. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=r4bmVbNSnk4C&pg=PA149&dq=%22nu+metal%22+subgenre&hl=ko&ei=_xHvS7oa0J846sCB7Ac&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=%22nu%20metal%22%20subgenre&f=false. 
  18. ^ Iannini, Tommaso (2003). Nu Metal. Giunti. p. 11. ISBN 8809030516. http://books.google.com/books?id=ILAzJcugjDsC&pg=PA130&dq=rage+against+the+machine+nu+metal&lr=&cd=30#v=onepage&q=california&f=false. 
  19. ^ McIver, Joel (2002). "How did we get to nu-metal from old metal?". Nu-metal: The Next Generation of Rock & Punk. Omnibus Press. pp. 10; 12. ISBN 0711992096. 
  20. ^ Christie. p. 324. 
  21. ^ Thomas, Stephen (1999-10-19). "((( Woodstock 1999 > Review )))". allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/album/r441749. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  22. ^ Thoroddsen, Arnar (2006). "Roots". In Dimery, Robert. 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. Quintet Publishing Limited. p. 782. ISBN 0789313715. 
  23. ^ Begrand, Adrien (2004-01-23). "The Devil in Music". PopMatters. http://www.popmatters.com/music/reviews/s/slayer-soundtrack.shtml. Retrieved 2007-05-29. 
  24. ^ Vontz, Andrew. Ice capades. Salon.com. http://dir.salon.com/story/ent/music/feature/2002/01/03/ice/index.html. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  25. ^ "Machine Head – Where to Start with – Kerrang". Kerrang!. http://www.kerrang.com/wheretostartwith/artists/machine_head. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  26. ^ a b Christie, Ian (2003). "Virtual Ozzy & Metal's Digital Rebound". Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal. HarperCollins. p. 327; 329. ISBN 0380811278. 
  27. ^ B. Reesman, "Sustaining the success", Billboard, June 23, 2001, 113 (25), p. 25.
  28. ^ T. Grierson, "What Is Rap-Rock: A Brief History of Rap-Rock", About.com, retrieved 31 December 2008.
  29. ^ a b c J. D'Angelo, "Will Korn, Papa Roach and Limp Bizkit evolve or die: a look at the Nu Metal meltdown", MTV, archived from the original on 14 February 2011, http://www.webcitation.org/5wV6uSAqb .

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