- Roman Catholic Diocese of Jaca
The Diocese of Jaca (Latin, Jaccensis) is located in north-eastern Spain, in the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragón. The diocese forms part of the ecclesiastical province of Pamplona, and is thus suffragan to the Archdiocese of Pamplona.
Jaca originally belonged to the diocese of Huesca, but after the Moorish conquest of Huesca in 713 its bishops, (known as the itinerant "Bishops of Aragon"), moved to Aragon. The episcopal seat was established in Jaca during 1063-1096, then moved back to Huesca after king Pedro I of Aragon retook the city from the Moors in November of 1096. The diocese of Jaca was created in 1572, carved out of the diocese of Huesca.
The cathedral of Jaca, dedicated to the Most Blessed Virgin of El Pilar, is a basilica of Romanesque design, built in the eleventh century; it was consecrated in the late 11th century and altered in the 15th-18th centuries.
A religious and civil festival is held on the first Friday of May, locally referred to as "Primer Viernes de Mayo", in memory of a victory said to have been won over the Moors in the eighth century by Count Aznar aided by the women of Jaca. It is celebrated with a solemn procession in which the entire cathedral chapter takes part.
There are many hermitages around Jaca, but none more interesting than that of San Juan de la Peña, esconced within a cave in the Pyrenees. This spectacular shrine was also a monastery, royal mausoleum, and allegedly one of the many hiding places of the holy grail in the middle ages. It continue to be a stop along the Camino de Santiago for many pilgrims and tourists alike. In another cave, dedicated to La Virgen de la Cueva, locals gather annually to pay homage to "Our Lade of the Cave" - a venerated shrine where Garcí Ximénez was proclaimed first King of Sobrarbe in the 8th Century.
Jaca was once the capital of the Jaccetani, a tribe mentioned by Strabo. This territory was the scene of battles between Sertorius and Pompey and later between Pompey's son Sextus and Caesar's generals.
Itinerant bishops of Aragon (713 - 1063)
Ecclesiastically, Jaca originally belonged to the Diocese of Huesca. When in 713 the town of Huesca was seized by the Moors, the bishop fled, and the diocese was directed from Aragon by itinerant bishops, sometimes called bishops of Aragon, sometimes bishops of Huesca or Jaca, who lived either at Jaca or in the neighbouring monasteries of San Juan de la Peña, San Pedro de Siresa, and San Adrián de Sasabe.
Among the itinerant bishops of Aragon were:
- . ca. 920 : Iñigo
- . ca. 922 : Ferriolus
- 933-947 : Fortuño
- 971-978 : Aureolus
- . ca. 981 : Atón
- 1011-1036 : Mancius
- 1036-1057 : García
- 1058-1075 : Sancho
Jaca as seat of the bishops of Huesca (1063 - 1096)
- 1058-1075 : Sancho
- 1076-1086 : García Ramírez
- 1087-1097 : Peter
A council held at Jaca in 1063 determined anew the boundaries of the Diocese of Huesca, which thereafter included the present dioceses of Huesca, Jaca, and Barbastro, as well as a part of the Diocese of Lérida. Jaca was then made the permanent seat of the diocese.
At the same time Sancho was appointed Bishop of Huesca (1058-1075), and hastened to request the Pope Alexander II to confirm the decisions of the council. In the same year of 1063, however, King Sancho Ramirez of Aragon (1063-1094) had won back from the Moors the city of Barbastro, and had granted it to the Bishop of Roda. García Ramírez, the new Bishop of Huesca (1076-1086), regarded this as an infringement of the rights of jurisdiction granted the Bishop of Jaca by the Council of Jaca. He therefore renewed his petition to the new pope (Gregory VII) to have the decisions of the council confirmed, which request the pope granted (cf. Jaffé, "Reg. Pont. Roman", I, 2nd ed., Berlin, 1885, n. 5098). As, however, Bishop Raimundo of Roda also obtained the confirmation of all his privileges from Gregory, a violent dispute arose between the Bishops of Huesca and Roda as to jurisdiction over the churches of Barbastro, Bielsa, Gistao, and Alquezar, which in 1080 was decided by the king in favour of the Bishop of Roda.
Bishops' seat returns to Huesca (1096 - 1572)
In November of 1096, King Pedro I of Aragon took back Huesca from the Moors and restored the original see. Pope Urban II decreed (May 11, 1098) that, instead of Jaca, Huesca should again be the seat of the bishop, as it had been until the year 713 (cf. Jaffé, "Reg. Pont. Roman", I, 2nd ed., Berlin, 1885, n. 5703).
But Jaca itself had a separate existence under a vicar-general, independent of the Bishop of Huesca. It also retained its own cathedral chapter, which originally followed the Rule of St. Augustine, but in 1270 both this chapter and that of Huesca were secularized.
Diocese of Jaca (1572 to the present)
Jaca was again erected into a separate diocese and was made suffragan to the Metropolitan See of Zaragoza by a Bull of Pope Pius V (July 18, 1571), which decision was carried into effect on February 26, 1572. The first bishop was Pedro del Frago.
According to the diocesan statistics of 1907 Jaca possessed 73,659 inhabitants, 151 parishes, 151 parish churches, 239 public and 10 private oratories, 236 secular priests, 30 regulars, and 54 sisters. The religious orders and congregations in the diocese are:
- Augustinian Hermits, one monastery and novitiate;
- Piarists, 2 houses for the training of boys;
- Benedictine nuns, 1 convent and 18 professed sisters in the city of Jaca;
- Sisters of Mercy of St. Anna, who have charge of the hospital at Jaca;
- Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Mary, 1 house at Jaca; sisters of Mercy of St. Vincent de Paul, with a school at Jaca;
- Little Sisters of the Aged Poor, with a home for the aged in a suburb of Jaca.
Bishops of Jaca (1572 to the present)
- 1572-1577 : Pedro del Frago
- 1577 : Juan Pérez de Arneda - (Elected, did not assume)
- 1578-1583 : Gaspar Juan de la Figuera
- 1584-1592 : Pedro de Aragón
- 1592-1594 : Diego de Monreal
- 1594-1606 : Malaquías de Aso
- 1607-1614 : Tomás Cortés de Sangüesa
- 1614-1615 : Diego Ordóñez
- 1615-1616 : Pedro Fernández Zorrilla
- 1616-1617 : Felipe Guimerán
- 1617-1622 : Luis Díez Aux de Armendáriz
- 1623-1626 : Juan Estelrich
- -------- 1627 : José de Palafox
- 1628-1631 : Álvaro de Mendoza
- 1631-1635 : Vicente Domec
- 1635-1646 : Mauro de Villarroel
- 1647-1648 : Juan Domingo Briz de Trujillo
- 1649-1652 : Jerónimo de Ipenza
- 1655-1671 : Bartolomé de Fontcalda
- 1671-1673 : Andrés Aznar Navés
- 1673-1674 : José de Santolaria
- 1677-1683 : Bernardo Mateo Sánchez de Castellar
- 1683-1704 : Miguel de Frías Espintel
- 1705-1717 : Mateo Foncillos Mozárabe
- 1717-1720 : Francisco Polanco
- 1721-1727 : Miguel Estela
- -------- 1728 : Antonio Sarmiento
- 1728-1733 : Pedro Espinosa de los Monteros
- 1734-1738 : Ramón Nogués
- 1739-1750 : Juan Domingo Manzano Carvajal
- 1751-1755 : Esteban Vilanova Colomer
- 1756-1776 : Pascual López Estaún
- 1777-1779 : Andrés Pérez Bermúdez
- 1780-1784 : Julián Gascueña
- 1785-1802 : José Antonio López Gil
- 1803-1814 : Lorenzo Algüero Ribera
- 1815-1822 : Cristóbal Pérez Viala
- 1824-1828 : Leonardo Santander Villavicencio
- 1829-1831 : Pedro Rodríguez Miranda
- 1832-1847 : Manuel María Gómez de las Rivas
- 1848-1851 : Miguel García Cuesta
- 1852-1856 : Juan José Biec Belio
- 1857-1870 : Pedro Lucas Asensio Poves
- 1874-1890 : Ramón Fernández Lafita
- 1891-1899 : José López Mendoza y García
- 1900-1904 : Francisco Javier Valdés Noriega
- 1904-1913 : Antolín López Peláez
- 1913-1920 : Manuel de Castro Alonso
- 1920-1925 : Francisco Frutos Valiente
- 1926-1943 : Juan Villar Sanz
- 1946-1950 : José Bueno y Monreal
- 1950-1978 : Ángel Hidalgo Ibáñez
- 1978-1983 : Juan Angel Belda Dardiñá
- 1984-1989 : Rosendo Álvarez Gastón
- 1990-2001 : José María Conget Arizaleta
- 2001-2003 : Juan José Omella Omella - (Apostolic Administrator)
- 2003-2009: Jesús Sanz Montes
This article draws only from other Wikipedia articles and these four sources:
- (English) Catholic Encyclopedia, 1910: Diocese of Jaca and Diocese of Huesca
- (Spanish) IBERCRONOX: Obispado de Jaca and Obispado de Aragón
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
Province of Barcelona Province of Burgos Province of Granada Province of Madrid Province of Mérida-Badajoz Province of Oviedo Province of Pamplona Province of
Santiago de Compostela
Province of Seville Province of Tarragona Province of Toledo Province of Valencia Province of Valladolid Province of Zaragoza Military Ordinariate
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