Photographic paper


Photographic paper

Photographic paper is paper coated with light-sensitive chemicals, used for making photographic prints.

Photographic paper is exposed to light in a controlled manner, either by placing a negative in contact with the paper directly to produce a contact print, by using an enlarger in order to create a latent image, by exposing in some types of camera to produce a photographic negative, by scanning a modulated light source over the paper, or by placing objects upon it to produce photograms. Photographic papers are subsequently developed using the gelatin-silver process to create a visible image.

Contents

History

The effect of light in darkening a prepared paper was discovered by M. Charles in 1800 or by Thomas Wedgwood in 1802.[1]

Photographic papers have been used since the beginning of all negative–positive photographic processes as developed and popularised by William Fox Talbot (Great Britain/1841-calotype).

Traditional photographic papers are still sold commercially today.

Types of photographic papers

Types of Photographic Papers.png

Photographic papers fall into one of three sub-categories:

Papers used for negative-positive processes. This includes all current black-and-white papers and chromogenic color papers.

Papers used for positive-positive processes in which the "film" is the same as the final image (e.g., the Polaroid process).

Papers used for positive-positive film-to-paper processes where a positive image is enlarged and copied onto a photographic paper, for example the Ilfochrome process.

Structure

All photographic papers consist of a light-sensitive emulsion, consisting of silver halide salts suspended in a colloidal material - usually gelatin- coated onto a paper, resin coated paper or polyester support.

In black-and-white papers, the emulsion is normally sensitised to blue and green light, but is insensitive to wavelengths longer than 600 nm in order to facilitate handling under red or orange safelighting.[2]

In Chromogenic color papers, the emulsion layers are sensitive to red, green and blue light, respectively producing cyan, magenta and yellow dye during processing.

Base materials

Black-and-white papers

Modern black-and-white papers are coated on a small range of bases; baryta-coated paper, resin-coated paper or polyester. In the past, linen has been used as a base material.[3]

Fiber-based papers (FB)

Fiber-based (FB or Baryta) photographic papers consist of a paper base coated with a baryta. Tints are sometimes added to the baryta to add subtle color to the final print; however most modern papers use optical brighteners to extend the paper's tonal range.[3]

Most fiber-based papers include a clear hardened gelatin layer above the emulsion which protects it from physical damage, especially during processing. This is called a supercoating. Papers without a supercoating are suitable for use with the bromoil process.[2]

Fiber-based papers are generally chosen as a medium for high-quality prints for exhibition, display and archiving purposes. These papers require careful processing and handling, especially when wet. However, they are easier to tone, hand-color and retouch than resin-coated equivalents.[3]

Resin-coated papers (RC)

The paper base of resin-coated papers is sealed by two polyethylene layers, making it impenetrable to liquids. Since no chemicals or water are absorbed into the paper base, the time needed for processing, washing and drying durations are significantly reduced in comparison to fiber-based papers. Resin paper prints can be finished and dried within twenty to thirty minutes. Resin-coated papers have improved dimensional stability, and do not curl upon drying.[3]

Color papers

All color photographic materials available today are coated on either RC (resin coated) paper or on solid polyester. The photographic emulsion used for color photographic materials consists of three color emulsion layers (cyan, yellow, and magenta) along with other supporting layers. The color layers are sensitised to their corresponding colors. Although it is commonly believed that the layers in negative papers are shielded against the intrusion of light of a different wavelength than the actual layer by color filters which dissolve during processing, this is not so. The color layers in negative papers are actually produced to have speeds which increase from cyan (red sensitive) to magenta (green sensitive) to yellow (blue sensitive), and thus when filtered during printing, the blue light is "normalized" so that there is no crosstalk. Therefore the yellow (blue sensitive) layer is nearly ISO 100 while the cyan (red) layer is about ISO 25. After adding enough yellow filtration to make a neutral, the blue sensitivity of the slow cyan layer is "lost".[citation needed]

In negative-positive print systems, the blue sensitive layer is on the bottom, and the cyan layer is on the top. This is the reverse of the usual layer order in color films.[4]

The emulsion layers can include the color dyes, as in Ilfochrome); or they can include color couplers, which react with color developers to produce color dyes, as in type C prints or chromogenic negative–positive prints. Type R prints, which are no longer made, were positive–positive chromogenic prints.[citation needed]

Black and White emulsion types

The emulsion contains light sensitive silver halide crystals suspended in gelatin. Black-and-white papers typically use relatively insensitive emulsions composed of silver bromide, silver chloride or a combination of both. The silver halide used affects the paper's sensitivity and the image tone of the resulting print.[2]

Chloride papers

Popular in the past, chloride papers are nowadays unusual; a single manufacturer produces this material.[5] These insensitive papers are suitable for contact printing, and yield warm toned images by development. Chloride emulsions are also used for printing-out papers, or POP, which require no further development after exposure.[6]

Chlorobromide papers

Containing a blend of silver chloride and silver bromide salts, these emulsions produce papers sensitive enough to be used for enlarging. They produce warm-black to neutral image tones by development, which can be varied by using different developers.[3]

Bromide papers

Papers with pure silver bromide emulsions are sensitive and produce neutral black or 'cold' blue-black image tones.[2]

Contrast control

Fixed grade - or graded - black-and-white papers were historically available in a wide range of contrast grades, numbered 0 to 5, with 0 being the softest, or least contrasty paper grade and 5 being the hardest, or most contrasty paper grade. Low contrast negatives can be corrected by printing on a contrasty paper; conversely a very contrasty negative can be printed on a low contrast paper.[2] Because of decreased demand, most extreme paper grades are now discontinued, and the few graded ranges still available include only middle contrast grades.[6]

Variable-contrast - or "VC" papers - account for the great majority of consumption of these papers in the 21st century. VC papers permit the selection of a wide range of contrast grades, in the case of the brand leader between 00 and 5. These papers are coated with a mixture of three emulsions, all of equal contrast and sensitivity to blue light. However, each emulsion is sensitised in different proportions to green light. Upon exposure to blue light, all emulsions act in an additive manner to produce a high contrast image. When exposed to green light alone, the emulsions produce a low contrast image because each is differently sensitised to green. By varying the ratio of blue to green light, the contrast of the print can be continuously varied between these extremes, creating all contrast grades from 00 to 5. Filters in the enlarger's light path are a common method of achieving this control. Magenta filters absorb green and transmit blue and red, while yellow filters absorb blue and transmit green and red. [7]

The contrast of photographic papers can also be controlled during processing or by the use of bleaches or toners.[citation needed]

Panchromatic papers

Panchromatic black-and-white photographic printing papers are sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light. They were designed for the printing of full-tone black-and-white images from color negatives; this is not possible with conventional orthochromatic papers. Panchromatic papers can also be used to produce paper negatives in large-format cameras. These materials must be handled and developed in near-complete darkness. Kodak Panalure Select RC was an example of a panchromatic black-and-white paper; it was discontinued in 2005.[8]

Archival stability

The longevity of any photographic print media will depend upon the processing, display and storage conditions of the print.

Black-and-white prints

Fixing must convert all non-image silver into soluble silver compounds that can be removed by washing with water.. Washing must remove these compounds and all residual fixing chemicals from the emulsion and paper base.

Toners should be used to convert the metallic silver into more stable compounds. Commonly used archival toners are: selenium, gold and sulphide.

Prints on fiber-based papers that have been properly fixed and washed should last at least fifty years without fading. Some alternative non-silver processes - such as platinum prints - employ metals that are, if processed correctly, inherently more stable than gelatin-silver prints.[2]

Color prints

For color images, Ilfochrome is often used because of its clarity and the stability of the color dyes.[citation needed]

Standard print sizes

References

  1. ^ Sydney Smith, Francis Jeffrey Jeffrey, Macvey Napier, William Empson, George Cornewall (1843), The Edinburgh Review, London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans; and Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black, http://books.google.com/?id=9-sEAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA335&dq=talbot+%22photographic+paper%22 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sowerby (ed.), A.L.M. (1961 (19th Ed.)), Dictionary of Photography: A Reference Book for Amateur and Professional Photographers, London: Illife Books Ltd. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Langford, Michael (2000 (7th Ed.)), Basic Photography, Oxford, England.: Focal Press, ISBN 0 240 51592 7 
  4. ^ http://www.fujifilmusa.com/shared/bin/AF3-155E_Fujitrans_PIB.pdf
  5. ^ Chamlee, Paula; Smith, Michael A. (2008), http://www.michaelandpaula.com/mp/newpaper.html, retrieved 2008-10-03 
  6. ^ a b Reed, Martin (1998;2004), http://www.silverprint.co.uk/info/yespap.html, retrieved 2008-10-03 
  7. ^ Ilford Imaging UK LTD. (December 2001) (PDF), Contrast Control for Ilford Multigrade Variable Contrast Papers, http://www.ilfordphoto.com/download.asp?n=29&f=2006130201152306.pdf, retrieved 2008-10-03 
  8. ^ unknown (June 2005). "Kodak Professional Panalure Select RC Paper" (pdf). Eastman Kodak Company. http://www.kodak.com/global/en/professional/support/techPubs/g27/g27.pdf. Retrieved 14 March 2010. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • photographic paper — fotopopierius statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. developing paper; photographic paper vok. photographisches Papier, n rus. фотобумага, f pranc. papier photographique, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • photographic paper — fotografinis popierius statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Popierius, padengtas šviesai jautrių medžiagų (ppr. sidabro halogenidų) emulsija. atitikmenys: angl. photographic paper; photopaper rus. фотобумага …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • photographic paper — noun light sensitive paper on which photograph can be printed • Syn: ↑photographic material • Hypernyms: ↑photographic equipment • Hyponyms: ↑film, ↑photographic film * * * noun …   Useful english dictionary

  • Photographic paper — Фотографическая бум …   Краткий толковый словарь по полиграфии

  • Photographic processing — is the chemical means by which photographic film and paper is treated after photographic exposure to produce a negative or positive image. Photographic processing transforms the latent image into a visible image, makes this permanent and renders… …   Wikipedia

  • Photographic printing — is the process of producing a final image for viewing, usually on chemically processed sensitized paper, from a previously prepared photographic negative, from a positive transparency or slide, or a digital image file. Printing from a Negative… …   Wikipedia

  • Paper print — Paper prints were an early mechanism to establish the copyright of motion pictures by depositing them with the Library of Congress. The first and foremost user of this prosecc was Thomas Alva Edison). To that end, beginning in 1893, Edison’s… …   Wikipedia

  • Photographic fixer — is a chemical used in the final step in the photographic processing of film or paper. The fixer removes the unexposed silver halide remaining on the negative or photographic paper, leaving behind the reduced metallic silver that forms the image.… …   Wikipedia

  • Photographic film — This article is mainly concerned with still photography film. For motion picture film, please see film stock. Photographic film is a sheet of plastic (polyester, nitrocellulose or cellulose acetate) coated with an emulsion containing light… …   Wikipedia

  • photographic material — noun light sensitive paper on which photograph can be printed • Syn: ↑photographic paper • Hypernyms: ↑photographic equipment • Hyponyms: ↑film, ↑photographic film …   Useful english dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.