- Rai Dynasty
The Rai Dynasty rulers of
Sindhwere patrons of Buddhismeven though they also established a huge temple of Shivain present-day Sukkur, derived from original Shankar, close to their capital in Al-ror. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 ] This is consistent with the historical accounts from the times of Emperor Ashokaand Harshabecause Indian monarchs never sponsored a state religion and usually patronized more than one faith. The influence of the Rai state exdended from Kashmirand Kannaujin the east, Makranand Debal ( Karachi) port in the west, Suratport in south, Kandahar, Sistan, Suleyman, Ferdan and Kikanan hills in the north.
ources of Information
The history of the Rai and that of their usurpers the Brahman dynasties are entirely based upon Muslim chronicles such as the
Chach Nama, thereby dating them to about the 5th century. Wink pg.152 ] They arise in the time period of shifting political scene with the wane of the Sassanidinfluence in the wake of the Hepthalite( White Hun/ Huna) invasions, and with the rulers issuing silver coins bearing their likeness by the 7th century.
The Rai dynasty is recorded as ruling lower Sind, from their capital
Arorupon the banks of the Indus Riverfor a period spanning 144 years. [The Indus has moved its banks since.] They are not noted as being foreigners or Huna and it is likely that the Huna advances did not penetrate towards lower Sind.
Chronology of Rai rulers of Sindh
Wink reports on the possibility of the corruption of the
Sanskritnames and renders them as related in parenthesis in the following chronology of the Rai rulers of Sindh:
Rai Dynasty (c. 489 - 632)
*Rai Diwaji (Devaditya) :He was a powerful chief who forged alliances and extended his rule east of
Makranand west of Kashmirand Kannauj, south to the port of Suratand north to Kandahar. [ Elliot. pg. 405]
*Rai Sahiras (Shri Harsha)
*Rai Sahasi (Sinhasena)
*Rai Sahiras second:Died battling the King of
Nimroz. [Khusru Naushirwan and Khusru Parvis have both been postulated however it more likely that it was a governor of Fars. [ Elliot. pg. 405]
*Rai Sahasi second
The rule of Rai Sahasi II
Rai Meharsan second had a war with
Nimruzof Farsin which he was killed due to injury of an arrow in his throat. After him Rai Sahasi second became the king. He ordered the appointed four Governors (Maliks) in his kingdom to protect the interests of the country and the people, to look after the repairs of the (State) buildings, and to keep the feudal assignees and estate-holders happy. In his whole dominion, there was not a single refractory or rebellious head who perversely opposed the measures passed by him or (transgressed) the boundaries fixed by him. Owing to his excellent policy and majestic dignity, Rai Sáhasi brought the kingdom under his firm control. The subjects and original residents of the country enjoyed much respect, and lived a happy life. He had a wazir, by name chamberlain Rám. Rám was well acquainted with the various departments of knowledge. Once, when the chamberlain Ram, the Brahman wazir, had come to his office, a Brahman named Chach, son of Selaij, came to visit him to pay respects to the chamberlain Ram . The wazir was impressed by the talents of Chach and appointed him assistant. In a short time, he became prominent in the correspondence department of the Council.
Once Sahasi Rai second fell ill. Some letters from the district of Siwistan having arrived, the Secretary Rám was called. But he had not yet come to the Council office. The minister sent his munshi (book-keeper) Chach for this purpose. The wisdom of
Chach of Alorinfluenced the king and he appointed Chachto look after the palace as Assistant Secretary. This way he got free entry into the palace. After the death of Ram, Rai Sáhasi called Chach to himself and conferred on him the office of Chamberlain and Secretary.
Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, Delhi, 1934
* The Chach-nama. English translation by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg. Delhi Reprint, 1979.
* Wink, Andre, "Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World," Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8 pg.
* Elliot, Henry Miers, "The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period. Volume 1, Adamant Media Corporation, ISBN 0-543-94726-2
* [http://persian.packhum.org/persian/pf?file=12701030&ct=0 Chach Nama]
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