- Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire
Stagnation of the
Ottoman Empire( 1683- 1827) was a period after the territorial expansion of the Empire reached its maximum. During stagnation the empire continued to have military might. The next period would be shaped by the decline of their military power which followed the loss of huge territories. The Battle of Viennaof 1683 marked the greatest extent of the empire in Europe and from a socioeconomic perspective it is accepted as the beginning of the Empire's decline.
After the defeat of the Ottomans at Vienna,
Prince Eugene of Savoyled Austrian forces to victories in the Great Turkish War. By 1699, Ottoman Hungarywas conquered from by the Austrians. The Treaty of Karlowitzwas signed that year. Subsequent wars in the 18th century brought on the Treaty of Passarowitz, the Treaty of Belgradeand the Treaty of Nissawhich entrenched the new Habsburg-Ottoman-Russian borders in the southeast of Europe.
Mustafa II sought to turn back the
Austrian advance into his Empire and in 1697 took the field in person to reconquer Ottoman Hungary. He was defeated at Zenta by Prince Eugene of Savoyand this event led the Ottomans to seek peace terms. By the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz, Mustafa II ceded Hungary (see Ottoman Hungary) and Transylvaniato Austria, Moreato the Venetian Republicand withdrew Turkish forces from Polish Podolia. Also during this reign, Peter I of Russia(1682–1725) captured the Black Seafortress of Azovfrom the Turks (1697).
In the treaty that Russia was compelled to sign, the Ottoman Empire obtained the restitution of
Azov, the destruction of the forts built by Russia and the undertaking that the Czarshould abstain from future interference in the affairs of the Poles or the Cossacks. Discontent at the leniency of these terms was so strong at Constantinoplethat it nearly brought on a renewal of the war.
Moreawas taken from the Venetians. This led to hostilities with Austria, in which the Ottoman Empire was unsuccessful, and Belgradefell into the hands of Austria in 1717. Through the mediation of England and the Netherlandsthe peace of Passarowitzwas concluded in 1718, by which Turkey retained her conquests from the Venetians, but lost Hungary.
During the course of the Persian war the Turks made successive conquests with little check from Persian armies, though often impeded by the nature of the country and the fierce spirit of the native tribes. After a few years, however, the war became less favourable to Ottoman ambition. The celebrated Persian military leader Nadir Konli Khan (who afterwards reconquered and conquered states for himself), gained his first renown by exploits against the enemies of Shah Tahmasp.
1731, as to the right of dominion over the Circassians of the Kabartas, a region about half way between the Euxine and the Caspian, near the course of the river Terek. The Russians claimed the Karabartas as lands of Russian subjects. They asserted that the Circassians were originally Cossacksof the Ukraine, who migrated thence the neighbourhood of a city of Russia called Terki, from what took their name of Tchercassians, or Circassians. Thence (according to the memorial drawn up by the Czar's ministers) the Circassians removed to the neighbourhood of Kuban: still, however, retaining their Christian creed and their allegiance to the Czar. The continuation of the story told that the tyranny of the Crim Tartars forced the Circassians to become Muslims, to migrate farther eastward to the Kabartas; but it was in on that the Circassians were still to be regarded as subjects of their original earthly sovereign, and that the which they occupied became the Czar's territory. This political ethnology had but little influence upon the Turks, especially as the Czar had in a letter, written nine years previously acknowledged the sovereignty of the Sultan over the Circassians
The Russian war was fought primarily in the
Crimeaand the Danubian Principalities ( Wallachiaand Moldavia). In this war, the Russian commander Von Munnichrouted Mahmud I's Crimean Tatar vassals and then led his forces across the Dniestr, bringing much of Bessarabiaunder Russian control. The Austrians, however, did not fare as well, as Ottoman forces brought Belgradeand northern Serbiaback under their control.
The Persian wars saw Ottoman forces ranged against the military genius of
Nadir Shah. The Turks managed to retain control of Baghdad, but Armenia, Azerbaijanand Georgia fell back within the Persian sphere of influence.
After the death of Ragihb Pasha in 1763, The Sultan Mustafa III governed by himself. He was not good at selecting councilors and commanders. He was a headstrong and hasty man; these behaviours contributed to his poor decisions. However he was very industrious and talented and was dedicated to promoting the interests of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1774 after a catastrophic war with
Russia, the Ottomans were compelled to sign the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji.
Selim III (1789–1807) attempted to reform administrative efficiency, but was killed by a Janissary revolt when he tried to create a new army and navy.
* Incorporates text from "History of Ottoman Turks" (1878)
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