San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane


San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
Church of Saint Charles at the Four Fountains
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (Italian)

Facade of Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane by Francesco Borromini

Basic information
Location Italy Rome, Italy
Geographic coordinates 41°54′6.6″N 12°29′26.7″E / 41.901833°N 12.49075°E / 41.901833; 12.49075Coordinates: 41°54′6.6″N 12°29′26.7″E / 41.901833°N 12.49075°E / 41.901833; 12.49075
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Year consecrated 1646
Ecclesiastical or organizational status Parish church
Leadership P. Pedro Aliaga Asensio
Website sancarlino-borromini.it
Architectural description
Architect(s) Francesco Borromini
Architectural type Church
Architectural style Baroque
Direction of façade NW
Groundbreaking 1638
Specifications
Length 20 metres (66 ft)
Width 12 metres (39 ft)

The Church of Saint Charles at the Four Fountains (Italian: Chiesa di San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane also called San Carlino) is a Roman Catholic church in Rome, Italy. Designed by the architect Francesco Borromini, it was his first independent commission. It is an iconic masterpiece of Baroque architecture, built as part of a complex of monastic buildings on the Quirinal Hill for the Spanish Trinitarians, an order dedicated to the freeing of Christian slaves. He received the commission in 1634, under the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, whose palace was across the road. However, this financial backing did not last and subsequently the building project suffered various financial difficulties[1]. It is one of at least three churches in Rome dedicated to San Carlo, including San Carlo ai Catinari and San Carlo al Corso.

Contents

History

The monastic buildings and the cloister were completed first after which construction of the church took place during the period 1638-1641 and in 1646 it was dedicated to Saint Charles Borromeo. Although the idea for the serpentine facade must have been conceived fairly early on, probably in the mid 1630s, it was only constructed towards the end of Borromini's life and the upper part was not completed until after the architect's death [2].

The site for the new church and its monastery was at the south-west corner of the "Quattro Fontane" which refers to the four corner fountains set on the oblique at the intersection of two roads, the Strada Pia and the Strada Felice. Bernini's oval church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale would later be built further along the Strada Pia.

Design

Exterior

Section of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, ca. 1730

The concave-convex facade of San Carlo undulates in a non-classic way. Tall corinthian columns stand on plinths and bear the main entablatures; these define the main framework of two storeys and the tripartite bay division. Between the columns, smaller columns with their entablatures weave behind the main columns and in turn they frame niches, windows, a variety of sculptures as well as the main door, the central oval aedicule of the upper order and the oval framed medallion borne aloft by angels. Above the main entrance, cherubim herms frame the central figure of Saint Charles Borromeo by Antonio Raggi and to either side are statues of St. John of Matha and St. Felix of Valois, the founders of the Trinitarian Order.

The plan and section show the layout of the cramped and difficult site; the church is on the corner with the cloister next to it and both face onto the Via Pia. The monastic buildings straddle the site, beyond which Borromini intended to design a garden.

Interior

Floor plan the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane.

The church interior is both extraordinary and complex. The three principal parts can be identified vertically as the lower order at ground level, the transition zone of the pendentives and the oval coffered dome with its oval lantern[3].

In the lower part of the church, the main altar is on the same longitudinal axis as the door and there are two altars on the cross axis. Between these, and arranged in groups of four, sixteen columns carry a broad and continuous entablature. The arrangement seems to refer to a cross plan but all the altars are visible as the two central columns in each arrangement of four are placed on the oblique with respect to the axial ordering of the space. This creates an undulating movement effect which is enhanced by the variation in treatment of the bays between the columns with niches, mouldings, and doors. Architectural historians have described how the bay structure of this lower order can have different rhythmic readings[4] and the underlying geometric rationale for this complex ground plan, as well as discussing the symbolism of the church and the distinctive architectural drawings of Borromini[5].

The dome with its intricate geometrical pattern

The pendentives are part of the transition area where the undulating almost cross-like form of the lower order is reconciled with the oval opening to the dome. The arches which spring from the diagonally placed columns of the lower wall order to frame the altars and entrance, rise to meet the oval entablature and so define the space of the pendentives in which roundels are set.

The oval entablature to the dome has a 'crown' of foliage and frames a view of deep set interlocking coffering of octagons, crosses and hexagons which diminish in size the higher they rise. Light floods in from windows in the lower dome that are hidden by the oval opening and from windows in the side of the lantern. In a hierarchical structuring of light, the illuminated lantern with its symbol of the Holy Trinity is the most brightly lit, the coffering of the dome is thrown into sharp and deep relief and light gradually filters downwards to the darker lower body of the church.

Crypt

The crypt below follows the size and form of the church and has a low pierced vault. Chapels open off this space, including an octagonal chapel on the south-east side where Borromini intended to be buried. It has a major and minor niche arrangement and an undulating cornice.

Cloister

Next to the church is the cloister, which is a two-storey arrangement. The space is longer along the entrance axis than it is wide, but the rectangular ordering is interrupted by cutting the corners so it could also be understood as an elongated octagon. Further complexity is introduced by the variation in the spacing of the twelve columns carrying alternating round and flat headed openings, the curvature of the corners, and the inventive balustrade. Geometrical themes are reinforced by the central octagonal wellhead on an oval base and the octagonal capitals of the upper columns.

Behind the church, the refectory, now the sacristy, has rounded corners, a pierced vault, windows in the garden façade and later alterations.

Notes

  1. ^ Blunt, Anthony. Borromini, 1979, Belknap Harvard, p. 53
  2. ^ Blunt, A. 1979, p. 71, 76-80. Blunt considers whether Borromini at San Carlo or Pietro da Cortona with his design for Santi Luca e Martina was the first to plan a curved church facade and decides in favour of Cortona, p. 76
  3. ^ Blunt, A. Borromini, 1979, p.52-84
  4. ^ Wittkower, Rudolf. Art and Architecture in Italy 1600-1750, Pelican History of Art, 1958, p.131-5
  5. ^ Steinberg, Leo. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. A Study in Multiple Form and Architectural Symbolism, New York, 1977

References

  • Blunt, Anthony (1979). Borromini. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674079264. 
  • Steinberg, Leo (1977). Borromini's San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane. New York: Garland Pub. ISBN 0824020081. 
  • Portoghesi, Paolo (2001) (in Italian). Storia Di San Carlino Alle Quattro Fontane. Roma: Newton & Compton. ISBN 9788882894856. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane — Patronat: Hl. Karl Borromäus Weihetag: 16. Oktober 1646 Orden: Trinitari Spagnoli Anschrift: Via del Quirinale, 23 00187 Roma …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane — Église Saint Charles des Quatre Fontaines La façade de Saint Charles des Quatre Fontaines et l une des quatre fontaines de la place L Église Saint Charles des Quatre Fontaines est une église de la Rome baroque, construite par Francesco Borromini… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane — ▪ church, Rome, Italy Italian“Saint Charles at the Four Fountains”also called  San Carlino        influential Baroque church in Rome that was designed by Francesco Borromini (Borromini, Francesco) as part of a small monastery for a community of… …   Universalium

  • Iglesia de San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane — Fachada de San Carlo alle quattro fontane …   Wikipedia Español

  • San Carlino alle Quattro Fontane — San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Patronat: Hl. Karl Borromäus Weihetag: 16. Oktober 1646 Orden: Trinitari Spagnoli Anschrift: Via del Quirinale, 23 00187 Roma San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane ( …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • San Carlo ai Catinari — is an early Baroque style church in Rome. The attribute ai Catinari refers to the presence, at the time of its construction, of many dishmaker shops in the same street of the church. The church was commissioned by the Order of the Barnabites and… …   Wikipedia

  • San Carlo — is the Italian for Saint Charles and may refer specifically to San Carlo Borromeo or any of the following:* Teatro di San Carlo, an opera house in Naples, Italy. * San Carlo, an Italian manufacturer of snack foods. * San Carlo ai Catinari, an… …   Wikipedia

  • Quattro Fontane — Der Tiberbrunnen der Vier Brunnen Die Vier Brunnen (ital.: Le Quattro Fontane) ist eine 1588 errichtete barocke Brunnenanlage in Rom. Sie besteht aus vier Einzelbrunnen aus Marmor (Tiber , Juno , Diana und Arnobrunnen), die sich an den Ecken der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • San Carlo Borromeo dei Milanesi — Die San Carlo Borromeo dei Milanesi ist eine Kirche des Barock in Palermo. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Baugeschichte 2 Baubeschreibung 2.1 Die Fassade 2.2 Der Kirchenraum …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • San Carlo al Corso — Sant Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso (usually known simply as San Carlo al Corso ) is a basilica church in Rome, facing the central Via del Corso. It is dedicated to Saint Ambrose of Milan and Saint Charles Borromeo, also native of that city. It is one …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.