- Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Grand Duke of Luxembourg Monarchy
Arms of His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Style: His Royal Highness Heir apparent: Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg First monarch: William I of the Netherlands Formation: 15 March 1815 (196 years, 251 days)
The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the sovereign monarch and head of state of Luxembourg. Luxembourg has been a grand duchy since 15 March 1815, when it was elevated from a duchy when placed in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Since then, there have been nine monarchs of Luxembourg, including the current incumbent, Henri.
“ The Grand Duke is the head of state, symbol of its unity, and guarantor of national independence. He exercises executive power in accordance with the Constitution and the laws of the country. ”
Succession to the throne is governed by Salic law, as dictated by the Nassau Family Pact, first adopted on 30 June 1783. A change in the succession laws introduced equal primogeniture beginning with the descendants of Grand Duke Henri. The right to reign over Luxembourg was until June 2011 passed by agnatic-cognatic primogeniture within the House of Nassau, as stipulated under the 1815 Final Act of the Congress of Vienna and as confirmed by the 1867 Treaty of London. The Nassau Family Pact itself can be amended by the usual legislative process, having been so on 10 July 1907 to exclude the Count of Merenberg branch of the House, which was descended from a morganatic marriage.
If there is a male heir apparent, he may be granted the style 'Hereditary Grand Duke'. The current heir is Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume. In June 2011, the agnatic-cognatic primogeniture was dropped in favor of equal primogeniture, allowing any legitimate female descendants within the House of Nassau to be included in the line of succession.
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The current Grand Duke, Henri, bears the full style "His Royal Highness by the Grace of God, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Count of Sayn, Königstein, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Burgrave of Hammerstein, Lord of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg and Eppstein." It should, however, be noted that many of the titles are held without regard to the strict rules of Salic inheritance.
List of Grand Dukes
Since 1815, there have been seven Grand Dukes of Luxembourg and two Grand Duchesses regnant of Luxembourg:
- William I (1815–1840)
- William II (1840–1849)
- William III (1849–1890)
- Adolphe (1890–1905)
- William IV (1905–1912)
- Marie-Adélaïde (1912–1919)
- Charlotte (1919–1964)
- Jean (1964–2000)
- Henri (2000–present)
- ^ a b c (French) "Constitution de Luxembourg" (PDF). Service central de législation. http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/textescoordonnes/recueils/constitution_droits_de_lhomme/CONST1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
- ^ "Luxembourg strips monarch of legislative role". The Guardian (London). 12 December 2008. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/12/luxembourg-monarchy. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- ^ (French)/(German) "Mémorial A, 1907, No. 37" (PDF). Service central de législation. http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/1907/0371107/0371107.pdf#page=1. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
- ^ "New Ducal succession rights for Grand Duchy". Luxemburger Wort. 21 June 2011. http://www.wort.lu/wort/web/en/luxembourg/articles/2011/06/153564/index.php. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- http://www.gouvernement.lu/dossiers/famille_grand_ducale/chregneuk/infobase/cvhenri.html Official site of HRH Grand Duke Henri
- (French) "Constitution de Luxembourg" (PDF). Service central de législation. http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/textescoordonnes/recueils/constitution_droits_de_lhomme/CONST1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
Luxembourg topics History Geography Economy Transport Politics People Religion Language CultureCinema (Films) · Cuisine (Wine) · Music · National symbols (Coat of arms · Flag · National anthem · National holiday) · Radio Luxembourg · RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg · Newspapers (Tageblatt · Luxemburger Wort) · Sport (Football · Olympic Games · Rugby union · Tour de Luxembourg) · Boy Scouts · Education in Luxembourg · more Monarchs of Luxembourg Counts of Luxembourg (963–1354)Elder House of Luxembourg
(963–1136)House of Namur
(1136–1189)Henry IV (1136–1189)House of Hohenstaufen
(1196–1197)Otto (1196–1197)House of Namur
(1197–1247)House of Limburg
Dukes of Luxembourg (1354–1794)House of Limburg
(1354–1443)House of Valois-Burgundy
(1443–1482)House of Habsburg
(1482–1700)House of Bourbon
(1700–1712)Philip V (1700–1712)House of Wittelsbach
(1712–1713)Maximilian II (1712–1713)House of Habsburg
(1713–1780)House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Grand Dukes of Luxembourg (since 1815)House of Orange-Nassau
(1815–1890)House of Nassau-Weilburg
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- Henri (LU)
- Abela (MT)
- Beatrix (NL)
- Komorowski (PL)
- Cavaco Silva (PT)
- Băsescu (RO)
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- Juan Carlos I (ES)
- Carl XVI Gustaf (SE)
- Elizabeth II (UK)
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