Canine tooth


Canine tooth
"Cuspid" redirects here. For the heart valves, see bicuspid valve and tricuspid valve.
Canine tooth
Azawakh K9.jpg
This dog's longer pointed cuspids or "fangs" show why they are particularly associated with canines.
Gray997.png
Permanent teeth of right half of lower human dental arch, seen from above.
Latin dentes canini
Gray's subject #242 1116
MeSH Cuspid

In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. However, they can appear more flattened, causing them to resemble incisors and leading them to be called incisiform. They evolved and are used primarily for firmly holding food in order to tear it apart, and occasionally as weapons. They are often the largest teeth in a mammal's mouth. Most species that develop them normally have four per individual, two in the upper jaw and two in the lower, separated within each jaw by its incisors; humans and dogs are examples. In most animals, canines are the anterior-most teeth in the maxillary bone.

The four canines in humans are the two maxillary canines and the two mandibular canines.

Contents

Details

There are four canine teeth: two in the upper (maxillary) and two in the lower (mandibular) arch. A canine is placed laterally to each lateral incisor. They are larger and stronger than the incisors, and their roots sink deeply into the bones, and cause well-marked prominences upon the surface.

The crown is large and conical, very convex on its labial surface, a little hollowed and uneven on its lingual surface, and tapering to a blunted point or cusp, which projects beyond the level of the other teeth. The root is single, but longer and thicker than that of the incisors, conical in form, compressed laterally, and marked by a slight groove on each side.

In humans, the upper canine teeth (popularly called eye teeth, from their position under the eyes[1]) are larger and longer than the lower, and usually present a distinct basal ridge. Eruption typically occurs between the ages of 11 and 12 years of age.

From a facial aspect, maxillary canines are approximately 1mm narrower than the central incisor. Their mesial aspects resemble the adjacent lateral incisors, while their distal aspects anticipate the first premolars. They are slightly darker and more yellow in color than the other anterior teeth. From a lingual aspect, they have well developed mesial and distal marginal ridges and a well-developed cingulum. A prominent lingual ridge divides the lingual aspect in half and creates the mesial and distal lingual fossae between the lingual ridge and the marginal ridges. From a proximal aspect, they resemble the incisors, but are more robust, especially in the cingulum region. Incisally, they are visibly asymmetrical, as the mesial incisal edge is slightly shorter than the distal incisal edge, which places the cusp slightly mesial to the long axis of the tooth. They are also thicker labiolingually than mesio-distally. Because of the disproportionate incisal edges, the contacts are also asymmetrical. Mesially, the contact sits at the junction of the incisal and middle third of the crown, while distally, the contact as more cervical, in the middle of the middle third of the crown.

The lower canine teeth are placed nearer the middle line than the upper, so that their summits correspond to the intervals between the upper canines and the lateral incisors. Eruption typically occurs between the ages of 9 and 10 years of age.

From a facial aspect, the mandibular canine is noticeably narrower mesio-distally than the maxillary one, even though the root may be just as long(and sometimes bifurcated). A distinctive feature is the nearly straight outline this tooth has compared to the maxillary canine which is slightly more bowed. As in the maxillary canine, the mesial incisal edge (or cusp ridge) is shorter than the distal side, however, the cusp is displaced slightly lingual relative to the cusp of the maxillary canine. Lingually, the surface of the tooth is much more smooth compared to the very pronounced surface of the maxillary canine, and the cingulum is noted as less developed.

Sexual dimorphism

With many animals the canine teeth in the upper or lower jaw, or in both, are much larger in the males than in the females, or are absent in females, except sometimes a hidden rudiment. Certain antelopes, the musk-deer, camel, horse, boar, various apes, seals, and the walrus, offer instances.[2]

In non-mammals

In non-mammals, teeth similar to canines may be termed "caniniform" ("canine-shaped") teeth.

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^ "eye-tooth". Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford University Press. 1989. 
  2. ^ The Descent of Man. Charles Darwin. s:Descent of Man/Chapter XVII

External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Canine tooth — Canine Ca*nine , a. [L. caninus, fr. canis dog: cf. F. canin. See {Hound}.] 1. Of or pertaining to the family {Canid[ae]}, or dogs and wolves; having the nature or qualities of a dog; like that or those of a dog. [1913 Webster] 2. (Anat.) Of or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • canine tooth — canine (def. 2). [1600 10] * * * also called  cuspid  or  eye tooth        in mammals, any of the single cusped (pointed), usually single rooted teeth adapted for tearing food, and occurring behind or beside the incisors (front teeth). Often the… …   Universalium

  • canine tooth — noun one of the four pointed conical teeth (two in each jaw) located between the incisors and the premolars • Syn: ↑canine, ↑eyetooth, ↑eye tooth, ↑dogtooth, ↑cuspid • Derivationally related forms: ↑cuspidal (for …   Useful english dictionary

  • canine tooth — the tooth immediately lateral to the lateral, or second, incisor; it has a long conical crown and the longest, most powerful root of all the teeth. Called also canine, cuspid, cuspid t., and dens caninus [TA] …   Medical dictionary

  • canine tooth — sharp pointed tooth located between the front teeth (incisors) and the molars, cuspid tooth, fang …   English contemporary dictionary

  • canine tooth — noun One of the pointed teeth behind the incisors and in front of the premolar teeth. Syn: eye tooth …   Wiktionary

  • canine tooth — noun (C) one of four sharp pointed teeth in the front of the human mouth; eye tooth …   Longman dictionary of contemporary English

  • Canine — Ca*nine , a. [L. caninus, fr. canis dog: cf. F. canin. See {Hound}.] 1. Of or pertaining to the family {Canid[ae]}, or dogs and wolves; having the nature or qualities of a dog; like that or those of a dog. [1913 Webster] 2. (Anat.) Of or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Canine appetite — Canine Ca*nine , a. [L. caninus, fr. canis dog: cf. F. canin. See {Hound}.] 1. Of or pertaining to the family {Canid[ae]}, or dogs and wolves; having the nature or qualities of a dog; like that or those of a dog. [1913 Webster] 2. (Anat.) Of or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Canine letter — Canine Ca*nine , a. [L. caninus, fr. canis dog: cf. F. canin. See {Hound}.] 1. Of or pertaining to the family {Canid[ae]}, or dogs and wolves; having the nature or qualities of a dog; like that or those of a dog. [1913 Webster] 2. (Anat.) Of or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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