Moro National Liberation Front


Moro National Liberation Front
Moro National Liberation Front
Participant in Bangsamoro War of Independence (ongoing)
MNLFlogo.jpg
Logo with Flag of the MNLF
Active Late 1969-present
Ideology Egalitarianism
Leaders Nur Misuari
Headquarters Sulu
Area of
operations
Mindanao, Sulu, Palawan
Allies Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) is a political organization that was founded by Nur Misuari in 1969.[1] The MNLF struggles against the Philippine Government (GPH) to achieve independence [2] of the Bangsamoro Land (or Bangsamoro Nation, or Mindanao Nation). The MNLF-GPH Peace Process is ongoing since the 1976 and both parties are working together to negotiate the terms and conditions of the legal framework and implementation of genuine autonomy as a peaceful path towards independence [3]. As defined by the MNLF, the territory of Bangsamoro Land covers Sulu, Mindanao and Palawan, or otherwise known as MINSUPALA.[4] Bangsamoro Land is also known as Southern Philippines and it has 25 Provinces.

MNLF is internationally recognized since 1977 as an observer member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC, formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference),[5] the largest sub-cluster in the United Nations with 56-member States & 2nd largest after UN. The Philippine Government also requested for similar recognition as observer member but was denied by the OIC.[6]


Contents

Ideology

According to the Official MNLF Blogsite, "the MNLF ideology is called egalitarianism which affirms, promotes, or characterizes a principled belief in the equality of all people in the political, economic, social, and civil rights aspects regardless of differences in religion, race, ethnic origin, age, and gender."[7][8] MNLF Chairman Nur Misuari mentioned the "Egalitarian State" in one of his interviews.[9] Contrary to the notion that MNLF is an Islamic Organization, the fact is, the MNLF is composed of Muslims, Christians, tribal Lumads, and any other religions who respect each other under the harmony of religious tolerance.[7]

Vision

With reference to the official MNLF blogsite, "the MNLF envisions an open society for the Bangsamoro Land. Open Society has a civil society that is tolerant to political and religious differences, the government is accountable to the citizens, and the media is independent. Open Society has a free market scenario, less government bureaucracy. In an Open Society, there is a quick and fair processing and replacement of government employees, officers, and politicians who are complained with corruption."[7]

"In an open society, services traditionally ruled by monopolistic government, oligarchy, and plutocracy will be newly participated in by a wide range of private sector business entities. Under a free market scenario of open society, if service is slow, corrupt, unfair, or inefficient in one shop, then people are given opportunities and choice to go to the next shop to get satisfaction of a better service."

Leadership

The founder and leader of the MNLF is Prof. Dr. Nur Misuari. Based on almost all official communications of the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) and the Republic of the Philippines, Nur Misuari is addressed as the Chieftain of the Bangsamoro, Founder of the MNLF, Chairman of the MNLF, Leader of the MNLF, and Commander-in-Chief of the MNLF.

Misuari is the only person in the Bangsamoro Land who is distinguished as a certified United Nations Peace Prize Awardee; Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Nominee; Awardee of Felix Houphouet-Boigny Peace Prize.[10] He is one of the few individuals that have acquired an international reputation on account of their major contribution to the promotion of peace, democracy and human rights.

Despite the final peace agreement, Misuari was charged of rebellion over an alleged attack on a Philippine military camp in Sulu in 2001, an attack which he denied and the MNLF denied. Nur Misuari became a political prisoner on charges of rebellion from 2001-2009 during the regime of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and the Court acquitted him in 2009 because the prosecution was unable to produce sufficient evidence.

One MNLF Doctrine

According to the Official MNLF Blogsite, there is a ONE MNLF Doctrine that states that "There is only ONE MNLF, under the ONE LEADERSHIP of Nur Misuari, under ONE IDEOLOGY of Egalitarianism. These are the three elements that make a Genuine MNLF."[7]

  • ONE MNLF
  • ONE LEADERSHIP BY NUR MISUARI
  • ONE IDEOLOGY OF EGALITARIANISM

"This Doctrine unites the MNLF members. This is like an unspoken oath, and an unwritten doctrine. A person on his own free will becomes one with the MNLF by just understanding and declaring himself a believer of the ONE MNLF Doctrine. A person's affiliation with the MNLF automatically terminates from the perception of any other Genuine MNLF at any point when the member stops believing in the ONE MNLF Doctrine."

This One MNLF Doctrine can be read in all appointment papers of the Officers and Mujahideens of the MNLF, a sample copy can be requested from the Director of Advocacy Communication of the MNLF that can be found at the Official MNLF Blogsite.

MNLF flag

According to the MNLF Director for Advocacy,[11] the symbols in the MNLF flag represent the harmony of the Bangsamoro heart, mind, and body.

"The STAR symbolizes the Bangsamoro virtues of TRUTHFULNESS, FAIRNESS, EQUALITY, and TOLERANCE to individual differences which guides the judgement of the leaders and people of the Bangsamoro Land. The color of the star is yellow gold. The CRESCENT MOON symbolizes the Bangsamoro WISDOM as we endlessly journey through Political Changes, Technological Progress, and Economic Development. The color of the Crescent Moon is yellow gold. The KRIS SWORD symbolizes Bangsamoro STRENGTH which defends our People's Freedom, Native Culture, Peacefulness, and Territorial Integrity. The Color of the Kris Sword is white with a yellow strip and its handle have five black stripes. The Kris Sword is at the lower center and pointed to the right, which means the sword will always make loyalty decisions for the interest of the Bangsamoro motherland. Above the Kris Sword is the Crescent Moon at the middle left side. Above the Crescent Moon is the Star. The background of the flag has a color Red, which represents the Bangsamoro activism, decisiveness, persistence, frugality, and sacrifices in pushing forward the revolutionary struggle for survival, self-determination, and prosperity. The MNLF Flag does not represent symbols of any religious, geographical, or ethnic groups. Through time, various MNLF units have introduced many unique design of the flag. The most common designs are (A) the sword is a straight-type kris and not the wavy type, (B) the star is outside the crescent moon, (C) there are Arabic or Tribal alphabetic markings."

History of Armed Conflict

With reference to the Official MNLF Blogsite, "the MNLF believes that the Bangsamoro Land is already a sovereign nation hundreds of years before it was illegally annexed as part of the Philippines in the 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines."[7]

Mindanao became a land for new beginnings when broad tracts of land were given away by the Philippine government from 1903 to the 1970s to migrants from other parts of the country in a so-called Homestead Program.[12] There was no land titling system by the natives of Mindanao at that time. The Philippine government took advantage of the absence of land titles to give away lots in Mindanao to poor farmers and other migrants from other parts of the country. Mindanao saw itself as the adopted home of a rapidly burgeoning population of Christian settlers who rapidly encroached on the living areas of the original Muslim and tribal residents, who now began to feel that they were also being robbed of their lands and the economic opportunities they provided.[13]

With that systematic encroachment, the natives, especially the original Muslim and Lumad segments, developed a deep-seated distrust of the officials of the Philippine government, a government under which they felt they were being treated as second-class citizens. As a result of the systematic land grabbing, sporadic fighting in various parts of Mindanao ensued between the natives and the troops/militias of the Philippine government.[14] Due to this, Mindanao become a battle ground of intense armed conflict, even the Americans sent forces to battle frontiers in Mindanao.

During the 1970s, President Ferdinand Marcos formed the ILAGA and CHDF (Civilian Home Defense Force). ILAGA is a Christian militia which claims to defend Christians from attacks perpetrated by Muslims. The ILAGA was one of the groups who fiercely fought against the MNLF. The ILAGA members were indoctrinated with religious motivation and it is rumored that the ILAGA had a reputation for cannibalism.[15] After over three decades, in the year 2011, the ILAGA embraced the egalitarian ideology of MNLF and have joined forces with their used to be mortal enemy—the MNLF.[16]

Birth of the MNLF

There is no record as to when is the exact date of the founding of the MNLF.[17] However, the MNLF have traditionally been celebrating its anniversary every 18 March, a date that coincides with the commemoration of the Jabidah Massacre.

According to the Official MNLF Blogsite, "in 18 March 1968, between 14 to 68 Filipino Muslim military trainees were massacred in Corregidor by soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) under its Commander in Chief President Ferdinand Marcos. It was popularly called the Jabidah Massacre.[18] The impact was an outrage among the Muslims in Mindanao especially those who are from Sulu where these military trainees were recruited. Not taking this lightly, Nur Misuari, a University of the Philippines professor rose to become the leader of this outraged group and he founded the Moro National Liberation Front in 1969. After a few months of setting up the organizational, in 1970, the MNLF officially proclaimed itself a political party. After recruiting sufficient number of armed freedom fighters, the MNLF launched a protracted armed struggle."[7]

"At that time of the conception of the MNLF, it recruited members with an original objective of regaining the independence of the Bangsamoro People and separate its sovereignty from the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRPH)." "The MNLF proclaimed itself a Mindanao liberation movement and proceeded to start the insurgency against the dictatorship of then President Ferdinand E. Marcos. The seven years (1969-1976) of intense armed conflict between MNLF and the GRPH resulted in the deaths of thousands of government soldiers and MNLF freedom fighters, as well as the displacement of thousands of families all across the Bangsamoro Land."

"Another important event in the MNLF history is the Tacbil Mosque Massacre. In 24 September 1974, a total of 1776 innocent and unarmed Moslem churchgoers were massacred by the Armed Forces of the Philippines in Malisbong, Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat, Mindanao. While the muslims were praying, they were sprayed with bullets by the Armed Forces of the Philippines. As of 2011, a marker in the massacre site reads:"

Bangsamoro Republik Moro National Liberation Front Hadji Hamsa Tacbil Mosque Malisbong, Palimbang Province of Sultan Kudarat... This old mosque was constructed and owned by late Hadji Hamsa Tacbil, a former strong MNLF finance supporter. Tacbil mosque a placed where more than one thousand muslims civilians was massacred by philippine army 15th 1B infantry battalion on 24 september 1974 under the regime of then President Fedinand E. Marcos. Compliment by Comdr Tuan Bazar G Tacbil (MNLF) and Tacbil Family[19]

Terrorism and Human rights issues

There is a United Nations Security Council Report[20] in 23 April 2010 that says that the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), New People's Army (NPA), and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) are among the groups around the world that have subjected minors to the most brutal violence, such as killings, maimings, rapes and other sexual assaults. In the said report, the MNLF is not mentioned as a human rights violator. Despite its huge number of armed freedom fighters, the MNLF under Nur Misuari has consistently maintained the discipline and integrity of its men and commitment to the Peace Agreement.

In a separate corroborating report, the State Department of the United States of America also had a 2009 Human Rights Report[21] and it did not mention the MNLF as a violator.

On October 28, 2011, the Philippine Interior and Local Government Secretary Jesse Robredo admitted that some members of the Abu Sayyaf are related to members of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and even government officials.[22] [23]

The three factors make the MNLF human-rights-abuse-free are (1) its rules of engagement, (2) self-reliance, and (3) hazing-free initiation.

  • This zero human rights violation by the MNLF is attributed primarily to its rules of engagement in combat. Each MNLF Freedom Fighter who is involved in combat situation, from top ranks down to the individual levels, are indoctrinated that MNLF does not target unarmed civilians, and does not tolerate human rights violations and cowardice in combat such as ambush, assassinations, torture, maimings, summary executions, taking of prisoners, kidnapping, hostaging, maltreatment of wounded enemies left behind, and terrorism of civilians. The MNLF also does not use bombs, arson, and does not trespass into houses, churches, mosques, and cars as these are considered as sanctuary of people caught in armed conflict. This rules of engagement makes the MNLF different from the NPA, ASG, Private Armies, and other criminals, mercenaries and bandits.
  • Another factor that contributes to the zero human rights violation of the MNLF is the economic characteristics of the MNLF freedom fighters. MNLFs are self-reliant members of the community who works for a decent living as farmers, traders, teachers, craftsmen, drivers, etc. MNLFs does not collect revolutionary taxes from the people and they are not paid any salaries and benefits as freedom fighters, therefore they are patriots in the purest sense.
  • The other considerable factor is the hazing-free initiation of new members into the organization. Joining and leaving the MNLF is very easy. The MNLF does not use and does not tolerate hazing, torture, maltreatment, and any type of abuse in the training and indoctrination process of new members.

Foreign Policy

The MNLF does not take sides in the armed conflict and insurgencies outside the Bangsamoro Land. MNLF is neither associated, nor connected, nor idolizing, nor have experience tactical, advocacy, financial, or organizational alliance with any other international or domestic insurgency or terrorist organizations. MNLF is stand-alone and is not open to any talks towards possibility of partnership or collaboration with any other insurgency or terrorist groups. The MNLF advocates the use of negotiation and peaceful means to settle conflicts. The MNLF is willing to provide Hijra (sanctuary) to anyone who is a victim of atrocities of war, political persecution, and forced migration.

Separatists and factions of the MNLF

There are three major factionalism in the MNLF, namely:

MILF

MILFflag.jpg

The first separatist of the MNLF was the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in 1976 which was led by Hashim Salamat. The MILF separated from MNLF for two reasons: (1) MILF believes that the Bangsamoro Land should be an Independent Islamic State, and (2) the Bangsamoro Freedom Fighters should not negotiate with the Government of the Republic of the Philippines. The first and original name of MILF was "New MNLF". The MNLF believes that the MILF was formed as a result of the infiltration of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and strategic move to "divide-and-conquer" the MNLF. The MNLF believes that the MILF is being used by the AFP in False Flag Operations. Hashim Salamat died in 2003 at age 61, new leadership took over and the organization still exists as of 2011. The only one GPH administration that negotiated with the MILF is the Arroyo Administration and the peace talk workload was inherited by the Aquino Administration. There are international observers who classify MILF as a Terrorist Organization, such as the Council on Foreign Relations[24]. However, the US Department of State did not include the MILF in the list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations [25]. Despite MILF killing of many Philippine soldiers and policemen[26], the Philippine Government admitted that it is funding the MILF [27]. The MNLF disapproves the idea that GPH is negotiating with the MILF. The MNLF believes that it will be more efficient for the MILF to just return back to its mother organization the MNLF. While the MILF leaders insists on negotiating with the GPH, the MILF troops on the ground have gradually begun to return back to the MNLF.[28]

Abu Sayyaf

The second separatist of the MNLF is the Abu Sayyaf Group led by Khadaffy Janjalani in 1991. This group was originally part of the so-called National Islamic Command Council (NICC) which was an Anti-Misuari group led by Melham Alam, the MNLF's sacked Chief of Staff in 1990. It was NICC who burned the Town of Ipil in April 1995. Abu Sayyaf is intolerant to other religions and called for continuous Jihad to pursue a pure Islamic State and believes in the "killing of enemies" and "depriving them of their wealth" (kidnap for ransom). The MNLF believes that the Abu Sayyaf was formed as a result of the black operation of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) to smear dirt on the face of Islam and scare the people against the Muslims. The MNLF believes that the Abu Sayyaf enjoyed the support of the AFP. Khadaffy Janjalani died in 18 December 1998, new leadership took over and the organization still exists as of 2011.

Fake MNLF, aka 15EC

The third separatist of the MNLF was the Fake MNLF, in 2001 during the administration of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. It was not actually a separatist, but more of a hostile take over of the insiders of the GPH. They called themselves MNLF Central Committee or MNLF Executive Council, a group of 15 leaders of the MNLF that have become anti-Misuari (same reason as Abu Sayyaf and MILF). This 15EC were used to be top MNLF leaders but they switched side to the Arroyo Administration and declared the MNLF Leader Nur Misuari as incompetent, yet ironically elevated him to the status of Chairman Emiritus of the MNLF. It was more of something like a hostile takeover in corporate terminology. These 15-men Council succeeded in their ploy and the Arroyo administration made Nur Misuari a political prisoner from 2001 until the cases charged on him was acquitted in December 2009. While Nur Misuari was politically persecuted,[29] the Genuine MNLF who are loyal to him was on "silent mode" from 2001 until his comeback in 2010. The fake MNLF does not have a new official name yet, but they are popularly called as 15EC. The 15EC are no longer considered as one with the MNLF because they violated the One MNLF Doctrine. In one of the speeches[30] of this 15EC, they said: "On Misuari, he is the founding chairman of the MNLF. He was the leader of the MNLF and he has represented the MNLF for a long period until the MNLF Central Committee stripped him of his powers in April 1, 2008, for his incompetence and for lack of direction. The continued recognition by the GRP of Nur Misuari is seen by the Moro people as a low intensity conflict strategy by the Government to perpetuate the division of the MNLF...The apparent continued recognition by the OIC Secretary-General of Bro. Nur is immaterial to the MNLF central committee."

Peace talks

All peace talks and negotiations between the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRPH) are participated in, brokered, mediated, facilitated, and events-coordinated by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

Heavy fightings started in 1970 and the first peace talk was in 1976. The GRPH, after losing many soldiers in six years of fighting with the MNLF, coupled with the economic crisis brought about by oil embargo imposed by the OIC, decided to initiate a move to convince Nur Misuari to sit on a negotiation table for a peace talk. Desperate of being unable to convince Misuari, President Marcos sent his first lady Imelda Marcos to Tripoli Libya to request the assistance of Muammar al-Gaddafi to broker a ceasefire and peace negotiation between GRPH and MNLF. In 1976, Gaddafi played a very big role in successfully brokered Nur Misuari and President Marcos to sign an international treaty called the 1976 MNLF-GRPH Tripoli Agreement. The treaty was witnessed and recognized by the OIC.

The 1976 Tripoli agreement provided for a general ceasefire and called for autonomy under the broad principle that Mindanao would remain an integral part of the Republic of the Philippines. After thirteen years, the 1989 Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) Organic Act was enacted into a law, wherein thirteen provinces (eight of which had Christian majorities) were proclaimed subject to the provisions of the agreement, which allowed Muslims their own courts, schools and administrative system. In 1996, the MNLF-GRPH signed a Final Peace Agreement, which provides that the Autonomous Region for Muslims would have a legislative assembly, executive council, special regional security forces, and economic and financial system.

Treaties and agreements between the MNLF and the Philippine government

According to the Official MNLF Blogsite, below are the major agreements made by the MNLF.[7]

1976 Tripoli Agreement during Pres. Ferdinand Marcos

After years of intense fighting between the MNLF and the GRPH, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) finally interceded. In 1976, Libyan politician Moammar Gadhafi brokered the negotiation between the GRPH and MNLF Leader Nur Misuari. The outcome of the negotiation was the signing of the MNLF-GRPH Tripoli Agreement of 1976.[31] The 1976 Tripoli Agreement essentially made MNLF and GRPH meet in a compromise agreement to establish an Autonomous Region in the Bangsamoro Land. The Tripoli Agreement of 1976 is the basis of the mandate of the MNLF, with Nur Misuari as the only one recognized leader, to represent the Bangsamoro People in its struggle for freedom. Out of the twenty-five (25) privinces claimed by the MNLF for Independence, the Tripoli Agreement negotiations settled to a compromise of thirteen (13) provinces to be included in the formation of an Autonomous Government for the Bangsamoro People, namely: Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-tawi, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, North Cotabato, Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Davao del Sur, South Cotabato, Palawan.

Despite the signing of the Tripoli Agreement of 1976, the fighting still continued on the ground between the AFP of President Marcos and the MNLF because of the absence of a clear guideline on the implementing rules and regulation of the Tripoli Agreement.

After securing the 1976 Tripoli Agreement, Marcos went ahead and held a referendum, which seemed to indicate opposition to the inclusion of certain provinces, opposition to the degree of autonomy presumably wanted by the MNLF and support for Marcos’ plan for two autonomous regions with 10 provinces under central control. The initial ceasefire, which was beneficial to Misuari as it gave his battle-weary troops time to rest (an opportunity welcomed with equal relief by the Armed Forces of the Philippines), eventually worked against the MNLF's interests. While the MNLF was relaxing, the AFP infiltrated it with a "divide-and-conquer" strategy. As a result, in 1976, the MNLF suffered from internal factionalism as disagreements between moderates and conservatives. In 1981, the internal differences has finally caused the birth of a more extremist Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) faction to officially break off from the MNLF. The existence of the MILF translates into a continuing insurgency confronting the GRPH.

1989 ARMM Organic Act during Pres. Corazon Aquino

In 1986, President Marcos was ousted by a popular revolt called People Power 1. In 1987, the new President of the Republic of the Philippines Corazon Aquino visited Nur Misuari in his home province in Sulu to talk peace with him. The humility and courage of Cory Aquino softened the warrior heart of Nur Misuari. In 1987, the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) became part of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. On 1 August 1989, the ARMM was created through Republic Act No. 6734 otherwise known as the ARMM Organic Act in pursuance with a constitutional mandate to provide for an ARMM. This law was further amended in 2001 and popularly became known as R.A. 9054 ARMM Organic Act - 2001 Amendment.[32]

1994 Joint Ceasefire Ground Rules during Pres. Fidel Ramos

In 20 January 1994, the MNLF and GRPH signed a Joint Guidelines and Ground Rules for the Implementation of the 1993 Interim GRP-MNLF Ceasefire Agreement.[33] This agreement covers MNLF identified areas (MNLF zones) including the following provinces:

In this agreement, the GRPH is mandated to authorize the MNLF to carry their firearms within MNLF identified areas; and GRPH may carry their firearms only in the performance of their official functions. The GRPH shall also authorize the MNLF VIPs to carry sidearms and shall provide additional security when moving in urban areas outside the MNLF zones.

1996 Final Peace Agreement during Pres. Fidel Ramos

President Fidel Ramos succeeded President Corazon Aquino in 1992 and he relentlessly pursued peace by running after Nur Misuari using persistent diplomatic emissaries. In 1993, the Philippine Government signed a Joint Ceasefire Agreement with the MNLF. In 1994, the Joint Ceasefire Ground Rules between the MNLF and GRPH was finalized. This 1994 MNLF-GRPH Joint Ceasefire Ground Rules, which is still in effect as of 2011, grants the MNLF to possess and carry firearms in the 13 Provinces stipulated in the Tripoli Agreement and the MNLF Officials may carry sidearms when moving in areas outside the 13 Provinces. In 1996, a compromise was finally reached by MNLF and the government and the MNLF-GRP 1996 Final Peace Agreement was signed by Ambassador Manual Tan (GRPH), Nur Misuari (MNLF Chairman), and Ali Alatas (Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia and Chairman of the OIC).[34] As of 2011, the 1996 Final Peace Agreement is the framework of talks and negotiation to determine implementing rules and guidelines.

Status

Upside

In 23 February 2011 the MNLF-GRPH-OIC had a fourth tri-partite talks in Jeddah. The Joint Communique after the talks indicate that three groups of experts from MNLF-GRPH-OIC-IDB will be formed: (1) to formulate the Terms of Reference of the Bangsamoro Development Assistance Fund by 30 May 2011, (2) to act as Tripartite Implementation Monitoring Committee by 30 April 2011, (3) to formulate the Mineral Sharing agreement by 30 April 2011. Output will be presented to OIC Peace Committee for Southern Philippines (OIC-PCSP) Chairman in Kazakhstan in June 2011.

Meanwhile, on the GRPH side, the Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process (OPAPP) formed a legal panel represented the MNLF, GRP and mediated by the OIC. The legal panel has now completed and initialed the final agreement on revising RA 9054 and it moves forward into Congress for revision/replacement of RA 9054 to create a genuine autonomy.

The administration of President Noynoy Aquino framework of program for Mindanao is spelled out in Mindanao 2020.[35] Pres. Aquino said that "Mindanao will be at the core of our social development and poverty alleviation programs."

Downside

At present, the MNLF is becoming apprehensive about the GRPH capability in taking a lead in implementing the Genuine Autonomy in the Bangsamoro Land for the following reasons:

  1. High Poverty Incidence in Philippines — some 20.5 percent of Filipinos or about 4.1 million families are going hungry while 51 percent, or some 10.4 million families, consider themselves poor , according to a new survey by pollster Social Weather Stations.[36] The 2011 Hunger Incidence Index Report for Philippines in 2010 is 11.5%.
  2. Economic Mismanagement by the GRPH — Philippines has become the second least attractive investment site in ASEAN.[37]
  3. Incorrigible Culture of Corruption in the GRPH — the PERC Survey that says Philippines is most corrupt nation in Asia.[38]
  4. High Human Rights Abuses by the GRPH — According to Pulse Asia study, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) is most corrupt agency of the Philippine Government.[39] The United Nations Security Council and the U.S. State Department also reported a high incidence of human rights violation by the AFP. Instances of torture in detention cells of the Philippine National Police have also been reported by other sources.[40] The Philippine government forces were also trained and initiated into the organization using inhumane methods such as torture, hazing, and maltreatment; thus making each of them tolerant to the sight of human suffering.[41]

References

  1. ^ Under the Crescent Moon : Rebellion in Mindanao
  2. ^ Nur Misuari speech in Jeddah, May 2000
  3. ^ MNLF Lecture Series in YouTube
  4. ^ MINSUPALA Online
  5. ^ Website of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
  6. ^ Philippines denied observer status in OIC
  7. ^ a b c d e f g About the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF Official Blogsite)
  8. ^ Egalitarianism is the MNLF Ideology
  9. ^ Nur Misuari mentions Egalitarianism in Youtube
  10. ^ Felix Houphouet-Biogny Peace Price for Nur Misuari
  11. ^ Meaning of Symbols in the MNLF Flag
  12. ^ Homestead Program
  13. ^ We are not Filipinos, We are Bangsamoros - Youtube
  14. ^ People and Power - Mindanao Militia (YouTube)
  15. ^ Why I Embraced Islam by Ibrahim Poncardas Romas
  16. ^ MNLF Ilaga Cmdr Inday Ligaya follows the leadership of Nur Misuari (YouTube)
  17. ^ MNLF: When? Who? Commentary by Particio P. Diaz, February 2011
  18. ^ Jabidah Massacre
  19. ^ Official MNLF blogsite the MNLF Director for Advocacy Communication, January 5, 2011.
  20. ^ UN Security Council Report, 23 April 2010
  21. ^ US Dept of State Human Rights Report of 2009 for Philippines
  22. ^ DILG Sec Robredo: Local execs have ties with Abu Sayyaf
  23. ^ Gov't probes Basilan, Sulu execs' ties with lawless groups
  24. ^ Terrorism Havens: Philippines
  25. ^ Foreign Terrorist Organizations
  26. ^ Terrorism Watch: MILF kills more soldiers in Zamboanga
  27. ^ Gov’t not to allow false reports to undermine peace process
  28. ^ Exodus of MILF Members to MNLF
  29. ^ Misuari faces re-arrest for badmouthing government before OIC, Philippine Star. 22 April 2010.
  30. ^ Speech of Sema in Congressional Committee Hearing of 13 Dec 2010
  31. ^ MNLF-GRPH Tripoli Agreement of 1976
  32. ^ RA 9054 ARMM Organic Act - 2001 Amendment
  33. ^ 1994 MNLF-GRPH Joint Ceasefire Guidelines and Ground Rules
  34. ^ MNLF-GRP 1996 Final Peace Agreement
  35. ^ Mindanao 2020, Businessworld, November 2010
  36. ^ SWS Survey on Philippine Poverty, April 2011
  37. ^ Philippines as 2nd least attractive investment portfolio in ASEAN, The Manila Times, March 2011[dead link]
  38. ^ PERC Report saying Philippines is Most Corrupt in Asia, March 2011
  39. ^ Pulse Asia study: AFP most corrupt agency in Philippines, March 2011
  40. ^ Some in AFP, PNP like Roman soldiers: Brutal torturers
  41. ^ AFP Torture Training


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  • Moro people — Maguindanaon Moros performing on the agung using two balus. Total population 5 to 9 million (about 6% to 10% of the Philippine population.) Regions with significant …   Wikipedia

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  • Moro — /mawr oh, mohr oh/, n., pl. Moros, (esp. collectively) Moro. a member of any of the various tribes of Muslim Malays in the southern Philippines. [ < Sp < L Maurus MOOR] /mawr oh, mor oh/; It. /maw rddaw/, n. Aldo /al doh/; It. /ahl daw/, 1916 78 …   Universalium


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