- Alan Watts
name=Alan Wilson Watts
Chislehurst, Kent, England
Alan Wilson Watts (
January 6, 1915– November 16, 1973) was a British philosopher, writer, speaker, and student of comparative religion. He was best known as an interpreter and popularizer of Asian philosophies for a Western audience.
He wrote more than twenty-five books and numerous articles on subjects such as personal identity, the true nature of
reality, higher consciousness, meaning of life, concepts and images of God and the pursuit of happiness, relating his experience to scientific knowledge and to the teachings of Eastern and Western religions or philosophies ( Zen Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Hinduism, etc.).
Watts was born to
middle classparents in the village of Chislehurst(now in the London Borough of Bromley), Kent, Englandin the year 1915. His father was a representative for the London office of the Michelin Tyre Company, his mother a housewife whose father had been a missionary. With modest financial means, they chose to live in bucolic surroundings and Alan, an only child, grew up learning the names of wild flowers and butterflies, playing beside streams, and performing funeral ceremonies for birds.
Probably because of the influence of his mother’s religious family, the Buchans, an interest in "ultimate things" seeped in. But it mixed with Alan’s own interests in storybook fables and romantic tales of the mysterious Far East. Watts also later wrote of a mystical sort of vision he experienced while ill with a fever as a child. During this time he was influenced by Far Eastern landscape paintings and embroideries that had been given to his mother by missionaries returning from
China. With regard to the examples of Chinese paintings that he was able to see in England, Watts wrote "I was aesthetically fascinated with a certain clarity, transparency, and spaciousness in Chinese and Japanese art. It seemed to float..." [as presented in his autobiography] . These works of art emphasized the participative relationship of man in nature, a theme that would be important to him throughout his life.
By his own assessment, Watts was imaginative, headstrong, and talkative. He was sent to
boarding schools (which included both academic and religious training) from early years. During holidays in his teen years, Francis Croshaw, a wealthy epicurean with strong interests in both Buddhismand the exotic little-known aspects of European culture, took Watts on a trip through France. It was not long afterward that Watts felt forced to decide between the AnglicanChristianity he had been exposed to and the Buddhismhe had read about in various libraries, including Croshaw’s. He chose Buddhism, and sought membership in the London Buddhist Lodge which had been established by Theosophists, and was now run by the barrister Christmas Humphreys. Watts became the organization’s secretary at 16 (1931). The young Watts explored several styles of meditationduring these years.
Watts attended King's School next door to
Canterbury Cathedral. Though he was frequently at the top of his classes scholastically, and was given responsibilities at school, he botched an opportunity for a scholarshipto Oxfordby styling a crucial examination essay in a way that was read as presumptuous and capricious. Fact|date=January 2008
Hence, when he graduated from secondary school, Watts was thrust into the world of employment, working in a printing house and later a bank. He spent his spare time involved with the Buddhist Lodge and also under the tutelage of a "rascal guru" named
Dimitrije Mitrinović. (Mitrinović was himself influenced by Peter Demianovich Ouspensky, G. I. Gurdjieff, and the varied psychoanalytical schools of Freud, Jung and Adler.) Watts also read widely in philosophy, history, psychology, psychiatry and Eastern wisdom.
Influences and first publication
London afforded him a considerable number of other opportunities for personal growth. Through Humphreys, he contacted eminent spiritual authors (e.g.,
Nicholas Roerich, Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan) and prominent theosophists like Alice Bailey. In 1936, aged 21, he attended the World Congress of Faiths at the University of London, heard D.T. Suzukiread a paper, and afterwards was able to meet this esteemed scholar of Zen Buddhism. Beyond these discussions and personal encounters, he absorbed, by studying the available scholarly literature, the fundamental conceptsand terminologyof the main philosophies of Indiaand East Asia. In 1936, Watts's first book was published, "The Spirit of Zen", which he later acknowledged to be mainly digested from the writings of Suzuki.
In 1938 he and his bride left England to live in America. He had married Eleanor Everett, whose mother Ruth Fuller Everett was involved with a traditional Zen Buddhist circle in
New York. A few years later, Ruth Fuller married the Zen master (or "roshi"), Sokei-an Sasaki, and this Japanese gentleman served as a sort of model and mentor to Alan, though Watts chose not to enter into a formal Zen training relationship with Sasaki.
During these years, according to his later writings, Watts had another mystical experience while on a walk with his wife.
Priesthood and after
Watts had left formal Zen training in New York because the method of the teacher didn't suit him. He was not ordained as a Zen monk, but he felt a need to find a professional outlet for his philosophical inclinations. He entered an Anglican (Episcopalian) school (Seabury-Western Theological Seminary, in Evanston, Illinois), where he studied Christian scriptures, theology, and Church history. He attempted to work out a blend of contemporary Christian worship, mystical Christianity, and Asian philosophy. Watts was awarded a master's degree in theology in response to his thesis, which he published as a popular edition under the title "Behold the Spirit". The pattern was set, in that Watts did not hide his dislike for religious outlooks that he decided were dour, guilt-ridden, or militantly proselytizing, whether found within
Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, or Buddhism.
All seemed to go reasonably well in his next role, as Episcopalian priest (beginning in 1945, aged 30), until an extramarital affair resulted in his young wife having their marriage annulled. It also resulted in Watts leaving the ministry by 1950. He spent the New Year getting to know
Joseph Campbell; his wife, Jean Erdman; and John Cage.
In the spring of 1951, Watts moved to California, where he joined the faculty of the
American Academy of Asian Studiesin San Francisco. Here he taught alongside Saburo Hasegawa, Frederick Spiegelberg, Haridas Chaudhuri, lama Tokwan Tada, and various visiting experts and professors. Hasegawa, in particular, served as a teacher to Watts in the areas of Japanese customs, arts, primitivism, and perceptions of nature.
Watts also studied written Chinese and practiced Chinese brush calligraphy with Hasegawa as well as with some of the Chinese students who enrolled at the Academy. While Watts was noted for an interest in
Zen Buddhism, with its origins in China, his reading and discussions delved into Vedanta, "the new physics," cybernetics, semantics, process philosophy, natural history, and the anthropologyof sexuality.
After heading up the Academy for a few years, Watts left the faculty for a freelance career in the mid 1950s. In 1953, he began what became a long-running weekly radio program at
Pacifica Radiostation KPFAin Berkeley, which continued until his death in 1973. Like other volunteer programmers at the listener-sponsored station, Watts was not paid for his broadcasts; they did, however, gain him a large following in the San Francisco Bay Area. These programs were later carried by additional Pacifica stations, and were re-broadcast many times over in the decades following his death. The original tapes are currently held by the Pacifica Radio Archives, based at KPFKin Los Angeles.
In 1957 when 42, Watts published one of his best known books, "The Way of Zen", which focused on philosophical explication and history. Besides drawing on the lifestyle and philosophical background of Zen, in India and China, Watts introduced ideas drawn from
general semantics(directly from the writings of Alfred Korzybski) and also from Norbert Wiener's early work on cybernetics, which had recently been published). Watts offered analogies from cybernetic principles possibly applicable to the Zen life. The book sold well, eventually becoming a modern classic, and helped widen his lecture circuit.
Around this time, Watts toured parts of Europe with his father, meeting the renowned psychiatrist
Carl Jung. In relation to modern psychology, Watts's instincts were closer to Jung's or Abraham Maslow's than to those of Freud.
When he returned to the United States, he began to dabble in psychedelic drug experiences, initially with
mescalinegiven to him by Dr. Oscar Janiger. He tried LSDseveral times with various research teams led by Drs. Keith Ditman, Sterling Bunnell, and Michael Agron. He also tried DMT, later stating that it was 'like loading the Universe into a gun and firing it into your brain'. Watts’s books of the sixties reveal the influence of these chemical adventures on his outlook. He would later comment about psychedelic drug use, "When you get the message, hang up the phone." ["The Joyous Cosmology: Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness" (the quote is new to the 1965/1970 edition (page 26), and not contained in the original 1962 edition of the book).;]
For a time, Watts came to prefer writing in the language of modern science and psychology ("Psychotherapy East and West" is a good example), finding a parallel between mystical experiences and the theories of the material universe proposed by twentieth-century physicists. He later equated mystical experience with ecological awareness, and typically emphasized whichever approach seemed best suited to the audience he was addressing.
upporters and critics
Watts's explorations and teaching brought him into contact with many noted intellectuals, artists, and American teachers in the
human potential movement. His friendship with poet Gary Snydernurtured his sympathies with the budding environmental movement, to which Watts gave philosophical support. He also encountered Robert Anton Wilson, who credited Watts with being one of his 'Light [s] along the Way' in the opening appreciation of "Cosmic Trigger".
Though never affiliated for long with any one academic institution, he did have a fellowship for several years at
Harvard University. He also lectured to many college and university students. His lectures and books gave Watts far-reaching influence on the American intelligentsia of the 1950s-1970s, but Watts was often seen as an outsider in academia. While some college and university professors found his writing and lectures interesting, others said things like: "He's not really a scholar of Eastern philosophy. He's not that disciplined. Alan Watts doesn't teach Eastern philosophy, he teaches 'Alan Watts.'"Fact|date=October 2007 To which he replied in numerous lectures that "the scholar who is interested in medals and prizes and not interested in the fun of it, has amazing put downs." He pointed this out with an example: "The original scholars in history were men that owned land, and being rich they had enough free time to study in their library, not for the progress of science, but for fun." Another Japanese Zen master, Maezumi Roshi, however, once remarked, "Alan Watts? He is not Zen!"Fact|date=January 2008
Watts often wrote about, or sometimes alluded to, a group of neighbors in
Druid Heights[http://www.techgnosis.com/index_druid.html Druids and Ferries] (near Mill Valley, California), who had endeavored to combine architecture, gardening, and carpentry skills to make a beautiful and comfortable life for themselves. Druid Heights was founded by the writer Elsa Gidlow.
Regarding his intentions, it can be argued that Watts attempted to lessen the alienation that accompanies the experience of being human that he felt plagued the modern Westerner, and (like his fellow British expatriate and friend,
Aldous Huxley) to lessen the ill will that was an unintentional by-product of alienation from the natural world. He felt such teaching could improve the world, at least to a degree. He also articulated the possibilities for greater incorporation of aesthetics(for example: better architecture, more art, more fine cuisine) in American life. In his autobiography he wrote, "… cultural renewal comes about when highly differentiated cultures mix" (Watts, "In My Own Way").
The spiritual aspect of sex
In his last novel "Island", Aldous Huxley mentions the religious practice of
maithunaas being something like what Roman Catholicscall " coitus reservatus". A few years before, Alan Watts had discussed the theme in his own book "Nature, Man and Woman". There, he discusses the possibility of the practice being known to early Christians and of it being kept secretly by the Church. Such a possibility is undeniable among a select few in the Church and outside of it (e. g. Freemasonry) for that matter but it would be rather naive to believe that the Pope might be all for it. Pope Pius XIIin citing Pope Pius XI Encyclical" Casti Connubii" stands firm in the belief that only the sex act of holy matrimony leading to procreation is moral and he goes on "... This precept is in full force today, as it was in the past, and so it will be in the future also, and always, because it is not a simple human whim, but the expression of a natural and divine law." [ [http://www.ewtn.com/library/PAPALDOC/P511029.HTM Pope Pius XII] The conjugal act]
In his writings of the 1950s, he conveyed his admiration for the practicality in the historical achievements of
Chán(Zen) in the Far East, for it had fostered farmers, architects, builders, folk physicians, artists, and administrators among the monks who had lived in the monasteries of its lineages.
In his mature work, he presents himself as "Zennist" in spirit as he wrote in his last book, "" [ [http://www.amazon.com/Tao-Watercourse-Way-Alan-Watts/dp/0394733118 Amazon.com: Tao: The Watercourse Way: Alan Watts,Al Chung-liang Huang: Books ] ] . Child rearing, the arts, cuisine, education, law and freedom, architecture, sexuality, and the uses and abuses of technology were all of great interest to him.
On the personal level, Watts sought to resolve his feelings of alienation from the institutions of marriage and the values of American society, as revealed in his classic comments on love relationships in "Divine Madness" and on perception of the organism-environment in "The Philosophy of Nature".
In looking at social issues he was quite concerned with the necessity for international peace, for tolerance or even understanding among disparate cultures. He also came to feel acutely conscious of a growing ecological predicament; as one instance, in the early 1960s he wrote: “Can any melting or burning imaginable get rid of these ever-rising mountains of ruin – especially when the things we make and build are beginning to look more and more like rubbish even before they are thrown away?" (in "
The Joyous Cosmology"). These concerns were later expressed in a television pilot made for NET filmed at his mountain retreat in 1971 in which he noted that the single track of conscious attention was wholly inadequate for interactions with a multi-tracked world.
In his writings; Watts alluded to his own political shift from Republican
conservatismto a more libertarian legal and political outlook. [Watts, Alan. "Psychedelics and Religious Experience", "California Law Review", Vol. 56, No. 1, January 1968, pp. 74-85.] Distrusting both the established political left and right, he found inspiration in the Chinese sage Chuang-Tzu. He disliked much in the conventional idea of "progress". He hoped for change, but personally he preferred amiable, semi-isolated rural social enclaves, and also believed in tolerance for urban tenderloins, social misfits, and eccentric artists. Watts decried the suburbanization of the countryside and the way of life that went with it.
In one campus lecture tour, which Watts titled "
The End to the Put-Down of Man", Watts presented positive images for both nature and humanity, spoke in favor of the various stages of human growth (including the teenage years), reproached excessive cynicism and rivalry, and extolled intelligent creativity, good architecture and food.
On spiritual and social identity
Watts felt that absolute morality had nothing to do with the fundamental realization of one’s deep spiritual identity. He advocated social rather than personal ethics. In his writings, Watts was increasingly concerned with ethics applied to relations between humanity and the natural environment and between governments and citizens. He wrote out of an appreciation of a racially and culturally diverse social landscape. At the same time, he favored representative government rather than direct democracy (which he felt could readily degenerate into mob rule).
He often said that he wished to act as a bridge between the ancient and the modern, between East and West, and between culture and nature.
Watts led some tours for Westerners to the Buddhist temples of Japan. He also studied some movements from the traditional Chinese martial art
T'ai Chi Ch'uan, with an Asian colleague, Al Chung-liang Huang. Watts lived his later years at times on a houseboat in Sausalitoon San Francisco Bayand at times in a secluded cabin on Mount Tamalpais. Laden with social and financial responsibilities, he struggled increasingly with alcohol addiction, which probably shortened his life. ["Zen Effects", p. 188–189 ] In October 1973 he returned from an exhausting European lecture tour. Watts died of heart failure in his sleep at his home on Mt. Tamalpais the following month at the age of 58.
In several of his later publications, especially "Beyond Theology" and "The Book on the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are", Watts put forward a worldview, drawing on
Hinduism, Chinese philosophy, pantheism, and modern science; in which he maintains that the whole universe consists of a cosmic self playing hide-and-seek ( Maya (illusion)), hiding from itself by becoming all the living and non-living things in the universe, forgetting what it really is; the upshot being that we are all IT in disguise. In this worldview, Watts asserts that our conception of ourself as an "ego in a bag of skin" is a myth; the entities we call the separate "things" are merely processes of the whole.
Alan Watts was married three times and had seven children including two sons, the elder of whom, Mark Watts, has recently served as curator of his father's work.
He met Eleanor Everett in 1936, when her mother, Ruth Fuller Everett, brought her to London to study piano. They met at the Buddhist Lodge, were engaged the following year, and married in April 1938. A daughter, Joan, was born November 1938, and another, Ann, was born in 1943. Their marriage ended eleven years later, but Watts continued after that to correspond with his ex-mother-in-law. [Stirling 2006, pg. 27]
* 1936 "The Spirit of Zen", Paperback. 1969 ISBN 0-8021-3056-9
* 1937 "The Legacy of Asia and Western Man"
* 1940 "The Meaning of Happiness", Paperback. 1970, ISBN 0-06-080178-6
* 1944 "Theologica Mystica of St. Dionysius", (translation from Greek of
pseudo-Dionysius, now available [http://www.esoteric.msu.edu/VolumeII/MysticalTheology.html online] )
* 1948 "Behold the Spirit:A Study in the Necessity of Mystical Religion", Vintage ed. 1972, ISBN 0-394-71761-9
* 1950 "Easter - Its Story and Meaning"
* 1950 "The Supreme Identity", Vintage ed. 1972, ISBN 0-394-71835-6
* 1951 "The Wisdom of Insecurity", Vintage ed. 1968, ISBN 0-394-70468-1
* 1953 "Myth and Ritual in Christianity", Beacon Press 1971, ISBN 0-8070-1375-7
* 1957 "The Way of Zen", Vintage Spiritual Classics 1999, ISBN 0-375-70510-4
* 1958 "Nature, Man, and Woman", Vintage reissue 1991, ISBN 0-679-73233-0
* 1960 "This Is It" and Other Essays on Zen and Spiritual Experience", Vintage reprint 1973, ISBN 0-394-71904-2
* 1961 "Psychotherapy East and West", Vintage ed. 1975, ISBN 0-394-71609-4 (excerpt [http://web.archive.org/web/20041201130703/http://www.publicappeal.org/library/unicorn/watts/psychotherapy_in_east_and_west.htm here] )
* 1962 "The Joyous Cosmology - Adventures in the Chemistry of Consciousness"
* 1963 "The Two Hands of God - The Myths of Polarity"
* 1964 "Beyond Theology - The Art of Godmanship", Vintage 1973, ISBN 0-394-71923-9
* 1966 "The Book - On the Taboo Against Knowing Who You Are", Vintage reissue 1989, ISBN 0-679-72300-5 (excerpt [http://web.archive.org/web/20041031135118/http://www.publicappeal.org/library/unicorn/watts/the_book.htm here] )
* 1967 "Nonsense", ISBN 0-525-47463-3. This book is an interesting spiritual application of
* 1970 "Does It Matter?: Essays on Man's Relation to Materiality", Vintage ed. 1971, ISBN 0-394-71665-5
* 1971 "Erotic Spirituality - The Vision of Konarak"
* 1972 "The Art of Contemplation"
* 1972 "In My Own Way - An Autobiography 1915-1965", Vintage 1973, ISBN 0-394-71951-4
* 1973 "Cloud-hidden, Whereabouts Unknown: A Mountain Journal", Vintage 1974, ISBN 0-394-71999-9
* 1974 "The Essence of Alan Watts", Celestial Arts 1977, ISBN 0-89087-210-4
* 1975 "Tao: The Watercourse Way", with Al Chung-liang Huang, Pantheon 1977, ISBN 0-394-73311-8
* 1976 "Essential Alan Watts"
* 1978 "Uncarved Block, Unbleached Silk: The Mystery of Life"
* 1979 "Om: Creative Meditations"
* 1982 "Play to Live"
* 1983 "Way of Liberation: Essays and Lectures on the Transformation of the Self"
* 1985 "Out of the Trap"
* 1986 "Diamond Web"
* 1987 "The Early Writings of Alan Watts", Paperback. 1995, ISBN 0-89087-794-7
* 1990 "The Modern Mystic: A New Collection of Early Writings"
* 1994 "Talking Zen"
* 1995 "Become What You Are", Shambhala Expanded ed. 2003, ISBN 1-57062-940-4
* 1995 "Buddhism: The Religion of No-Religion"
* 1995 "The Philosophies of Asia"
* 1995 "The Tao of Philosophy", edited transcripts, Tuttle Publishing 1999, ISBN 0-8048-3204-8
* 1996 "Myth and Religion"
* 1997 "Taoism: Way Beyond Seeking"
* 1997 "Zen and the Beat Way"
* 1998 "Culture of Counterculture"
* 1999 "Buddhism: The Religion of No-Religion", edited transcripts, Tuttle Publishing, ISBN 0-8048-3203-X
* 2000 "What Is Zen?", editor: Mark Watts, New World Library, ISBN 0-394-71951-4
* 2000 "What Is Tao?", ed. Mark Watts, New World Library, ISBN 1-57731-168-X
* 2000 "Still the Mind: An Introduction to Meditation", ed. Mark Watts, New World Library, ISBN 1-57731-214-7
* 2000 "Eastern Wisdom", ed. Mark Watts, MJF Books, ISBN 1-56731-491-0, three books in one volume: "What is Zen?", "What is Tao?", and "An Introduction to Meditation" ("Still the Mind"). These were assembled from transcriptions of audio tape recordings made by his son Mark, of lectures and seminars given by Alan Watts during the last decade of his life. They constitute simplified introductions to the philosophies he taught.
Audio and video works, essays
Including recordings of lectures at major universities and multi-session seminars:
* 1960 "Eastern Wisdom in Modern Life", television series, ( [http://www.alanwatts.com/aw_story.html here] )
* 1960 "Essential Lectures", audio recordings, ( [http://www.alanwatts.com/ac_lectures.html here] )
* 1960 "Nature of Consciousness", essay, ( [http://web.archive.org/web/20041014045513/http://www.publicappeal.org/library/unicorn/watts/the_nature_of_conciousness.htm here] )
* 1960 "The Value of Psychotic Experience"
* 1960 "The World As Emptiness"
* 1960 "From Time to Eternity"
* 1960 "Lecture On Zen"
* 1960 "The Cross of Cards"
* 1960 "Taoism"
* 1962 "This Is IT"
* 1968 "Psychedelics & Religious Experience", in "
California Law Review" ( [http://web.archive.org/web/20041014045513/http://www.publicappeal.org/library/unicorn/watts/psychedelics_and_religious_experience.htm here] )
* 1969 "Why Not Now: The Art of Meditation"
* 2005 "Do You Do It, or Does It Do You?: how to let the universe meditate you" (CD)
* 2007 "Zen Meditations with Alan Watts", DVD, ( [http://hartleyfoundation.org/world-religions-volume-4-zen-meditations-alan-watts here] )
*Charters, Ann (ed.). "The Portable Beat Reader". Penguin Books. New York. 1992. ISBN 0-670-83885-3 (hard cover); ISBN 0-14-015102-8 (paperback)
*Furlong, Monica, "Zen Effects: The Life of Alan Watts" Houghton Mifflin. New York. 1986 ISBN 0-395-45392-5, Skylight Paths 2001 edition of the biography, with new foreword by author: ISBN 1-89336132-2
*Stirling, Isabel. "Zen Pioneer: The Life & Works of Ruth Fuller Sasaki" Shoemaker & Hoard. 2006. ISBN 978-1-59376-110-3
*Watts, Alan, "In My Own Way" New York. Random House Pantheon. 1973 ISBN 0-394-46911-9 (his autobiography)
* The [http://www.alanwatts.com/ Alan Watts Archive]
* [http://www.alanwattspodcast.com/ Alan Watts Podcast] - The official Podcast of Alan Watts
* [http://library.holtof.com/unicorn/watts/index.htm Alan Watts Online] - Project Unicorn (also [http://web.archive.org/web/20041031135118/http://www.publicappeal.org/library/unicorn/watts/index.htm via Archive.org] )
* [http://www.wayneholland.org/nothingness.htm Watts essay on Nothingness]
* [http://www.freshminds.com/animation/alan_watts_theater.html "Alan Watts Theatre"] - audio recordings of Watts set to animations
* [http://diydharma.org/Watts Alan Watts audio archive] from the [http://diydharma.org DIY Dharma website]
* [http://deoxy.org/watts.htm Alan Watts Lectures and Essays] Audio, video, essays and articles - resources from [http://deoxy.org deoxy.org]
* [http://funkdafunk.com/AlanWatts.html Alan Watts Resource Compilation] A collection of audio and video links of Alan Watts lecture and essays
* [http://madaboutasia.blogspot.com/2008/08/alan-watts-on-youtube-south-park.html Alan Watts on YouTube, South Park] Interview with Mark Watts on the resurgence of his father's work
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Alan Watts — Alan Wilson Watts (6 de enero de 1915 – 16 de noviembre de 1973) fue un filósofo británico, siendo también editor, sacerdote anglicano, locutor, decano, escritor, conferenciante y experto en religión. Se le conoce sobre todo por su labor como… … Wikipedia Español
Alan Watts — (Alan Wilson Watts; * 6. Januar 1915 in Chiselhurst, Kent; † 16. November 1973 am Mount Tamalpais) war ein englischer Religionsphilosoph, der vorwiegend in den Vereinigten Staaten wirkte, wo er als Priester der Episcopal Church in the USA, Dozent … Deutsch Wikipedia
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