- Primary School Leaving Examination
The Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) is a national
examinationtaken by all students in Singaporenear the end of their sixth year in primary school, which is also their last year in primary school before they leave for secondary school. It is administered by the Ministry of Education. This nationwide examination tests the English language, the so-called Mother Tongue languages (typically Chinese, Malay, or Tamil, and also some other South Asian languages, such as Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu), Mathematicsand Science. Each subject paper is around 2 hours long, with this time varying by fifteen minutes, except for certain components of language subjects. Multiple choice questions are tested using a standardised optical answer sheet(OAS) that uses optical mark recognitionto detect answers.
The PSLE's format and omnipresence in the Singapore education system itself not only makes it an examination, but a national culture and system in itself. The PSLE is the culmination of primary education in Singapore, and its format can be found in primary school examinations beside the PSLE itself, even from Primary 1, the first year of primary school. PSLE material has also been exported to other countries.
Examination subjects and procedure
The format of the examinations within the PSLE has been revised consistently throughout its history, in order to suit the Ministry of Education's policy. However, the standard examination procedure retains many of the same elements throughout the years despite changes being made to the requirements of each question, the score allocated to each question and the revisions in emphasis.
Language examination and qualification
In order to test the students' grasp of the language subjects, such as the English language or the Mother Tongue languages at the end of primary school, there are several separate examinations. As the student is usually required to take examinations for both his/her Mother Tongue language and the English language, (with the exceptions of exemption or additional languages), the average student repeats the following procedures twice. With each Mother Tongue subject, there are three levels of examination, the standard level, the foundational level and the separate and optional "Higher Mother Tongue" subject. A student will have to choose between standard and foundational Mother Tongue based on his/her proficiency in the language. Whether a Higher Mother Tongue subject is taken also depends on the student's proficiency in the language. English, Mathematics and Science are available at the standard and foundational levels. A student can opt to take different subjects at different levels. In the past, whether a student took Higher Mother Tongue or not was determined by which stream he/she was in, namely the EM1 (higher) stream and the EM2 stream (standard). These streams had the same standard subjects except for the additional EM1 subject of Higher Mother Tongue, which differentiated the streams. This streaming was based on the overall performance of the student when he/she was in Primary 4, his/her fourth year in primary school. There was also an EM3 stream (foundational), in which a student took all four subjects (English, Mother Tongue, Mathematics and Science) at the foundational level. EM3 Science (a foundation Science curriculum for the EM3 stream) was not available then. From 2007, Primary 4 pupils underwent subject-based rather than overall streaming, so that the labels EM1, EM2 and EM3 disappeared, leaving only the options to take different subjects at the standard or foundational level and the option of taking Higher Mother Tongue. At the end of Primary 4, the students' parents decide their combination of subjects. At the end of Primary 5, the school will make the final decision on the student's combination of subjects.
The examination format tends to vary by language, but each language examination usually has an oral examination, testing the students' proficiency in speaking the language, a
listening comprehensionexamination, testing the students' ability to comprehend speech in daily situations, an examination to test the student's composition skills and the student's proficiency in writing in various scenarios, and finally an examination testing the student's written use of the language (e.g. grammar, punctuation, vocabulary).
The oral examination for the English language usually lasts about five to ten minutes per student; however, students are held in a "holding room" before the examination, and based on which student takes the test first, the waiting time can be extensive. The last person to be called may wait more than two hours in a class of 40 because of the nature of the examination.
The examination tests the students' fluency and skills of oral communication in the language by requiring the student to articulate unseen material that is revealed to a student only five minutes before meeting his or her examiners. As the same material is used throughout for a single day, the holding room is used to prevent communication between those who have taken the examination and those who have not. Because of the long time period of the examination, the examination is often divided into two days of two separate sets of material each to reduce the inefficiency caused by the waiting time.
The maximum score for this examination is 30. The oral examination is divided into three sections: students are required to read aloud from a passage fluently, this being graded on a score of 10. The students are then required to describe and interpret a
pictureas thoroughly and detailed as possible in a clockwise or anti-clockwise way, and giving comments about their actions in a formal way and predict the consequence of such an action, and this also having a score of 10. It is advised that students do not point to the picture. No names should be given and everything is to be said in present tense. The final section requires the students to answer any questions the teachers asks of them related to the two sections, which often require their opinion and inference, and provides the final ten marks. The examination is judged by two teachers who have to agree on a single score for each student, both giving two scores and taking the average.
A listening comprehension examination will then test the students' ability to comprehend the spoken English language in various daily situations, and is comprised of twenty multiple choice questions which is based on information contained in audio played to the students, and the examination is taken as a class, not individually; this particular examination lasts around twenty minutes, with the maximum score being 20.
There is a two-section composition question comprising of "functional writing", also known as "situational writing", where students write an informal or a formal letter,
memoor note, and "situational writing",an essayusually written in the form of a narrativeor third person drama. These two sections last a total of one hour and ten minutes. The functional section has a score value of 15; the maximum essay score 40. Two teachers are required to grade a composition paper, and the disparity in scoring made by each teacher should be minimal, and the average of the scoring taken if the disparity is small in order to yield the score for the questions. If the disparity is too large, the question papers are required to be re-graded, this time with three teachers.
The essay section in particular usually avoids giving questions requiring
logical argumentand favours scenic or event description. This stands in contrast to some of the questions asked often in the General Certificate of Education(O levels). The examination paper asks the students to choose from two questions. The first question takes the form of a picture, representing a scene in which the students are supposed to write about and describe, and the second takes the form of a given situation or scenario, each including writing criteria, such as the required setting of each of the two questions in which the students are supposed to fulfil.
The final examination testing the students' proficiency in the language is a written paper which tests the student's comprehension of the written language being tested, and usually lasts about 1 hour and 50 minutes in length. It has a total score value of 95. Multiple choice questions are given in the first section of the written paper, and tests
grammar, where students are required to spot a mistake in tense and provide the correct conjugate or word form, or provide correct punctuationwhich as of 2005 has a weight of 15. It also tests vocabularythe students are required to choose a word from a list that fills in a blank that will express a sentence logically, with a current weight of 5. Students then are provided five questions, with a total weight of 10, where the student is to synthesise (join) two sentences together into one complete, grammatically coherent and agreeable sentence. Following this ten sentences with highlighted spelling and grammar mistakes which are supposed to be copyedited, with a total weight of 10. A clozepassage with a total of ten items and a weight of 10 is provided to the student; the passage tests grammar specifically.
After this, students are given a cloze passage testing comprehension as opposed to grammar, which currently has a weight of 15 in which they fill in blanks with words from a box. Students may be given a graphical stimulus; students will answer multiple-choice questions based on the graphical stimulus. Students are then given a passage to comprehend, and are tested first by answering five multiple choice questions about it, with a total weight of 5, and answering in full sentences ten open-ended questions with a total weight of 20.
To yield the final grade for the student taking the language, all of the students' examination scores for that language are added; as the maximum total score is 200, the total is divided by 200% to yield the students' percentage score for the language subject. The format described is the standard format for 2005; it varies slightly in weight for each section, with deletions of some sections if the student is taking "Foundation English" as part of the
cience examination and qualification
A science paper lasts for around 1 hour and 45 minutes. Students are given 30 multiple choice questions with a weight of two marks of each, thus a total weight of 60; 16 open-ended questions, with weights of 2,3 or 4 marks each measure proficiency in several units of the curriculum, with a total weight of 40. The syllabus covers various aspects of
chemistry, physicsand biology, and basic interpretationof statisticson a primary school level. These distinctions into different fields are not made in the examination format but can be derived based on the different themes:
energy, its forms such as heat, basic thermodynamicsin a systemand the conservation of it
force, simple machines
Biogeochemical cycles: water cycle, nitrogen cycle, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere
matterand fundamentals of materials science, massand physical properties, discrete particles, phases of matter, effects of heat on matter
Electromagnetismand its components electricityand magnetism
astrophysics: solar system, etc.
Human anatomy: sense, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, muscular and skeletal system, digestive system
Scientific classificationof life
Plants and their parts, poisonous plants, methods of defense and photosynthesis, transportin plants, active transport
Harms and uses of different plants and animals, overall knowledge of role each organism plays in an ecosystem, predatorand preyrelationships
Animal gestationand plant germination, growth, and life cycles
Sexual reproductionand asexual reproduction, flowers, dispersal of fruit, classifying recognising plants' methods of reproduction and dispersal
* Biological production and
population growth: recognising reasons for an exponential and logistic functionin a graph
Adaptationof life to the environment, basic evolutionary theory
Chemical testing for presence of various substances: calcium hydroxide solution (lime water)to test for carbon dioxide, iodinesolution to test for starch, inferenceabout interconnected interactions and processes to yield products
* Testing for results of biological processes
Pollutionand steps to combat pollution
The mathematics examination in the PSLE is often one of its most distinctive elements due to its format and style in contrast to most other examinations in other countries. The examination is two hours and fifteen minutes long, and is divided into three sections, "section A", "section B" and "section C". Section A is multiple choice and consists of fifteen questions, the first ten being one point each in score value, and the other five being two points, and account for 20% of the examination score in total. Section B requires open-ended input, and comprises twenty questions, the first ten questions are worth one point and the other ten questions are worth two points. They usually require little effort from the students and are meant to test individual knowledge components of the student. Section C is worth 50 points, and consists of several questions, worth 3-5 points. The questions are usually arranged in escalating difficulty, and the questions towards the end have received a degree of controversy from parents and educators from other countries.
Long-answer questions in the PSLE worth four or five marks tend to be in two types, a
heuristictype of question, which usually requires students to form a new theorem, concept or algorithm from pre-existing knowledge in order to solve the question, although this does not have to be shown; however a logical statement and evidence connecting the question to the answer has to be shown in order to be awarded marks. This often takes form in questions which introduces limits, sequencesand series, whether geometric or arithmetic, and linear algebra. The second type, a structured type of question is usually more predictable but arguably more tedious and find answers for systems of equations contained in a word problem.
The mathematics examination in the PSLE has faced complaints from
parents who complain about material outside the syllabus, while facing criticism from some educators from overseas who argue that the examination eventually encourages rote rather than actual conceptual knowledge based on incentives to the student. The 2005 paper drew criticism due to the poor setting of one of the multiple-choice questions, as mentioned below.
coring and post-examination procedure
Although the students have an absolute score, each student's absolute score are compared with other students in order to yield an
aggregate score, and the students are ranked according to that basis. This allows the examination to accommodate for overly easy or overly difficult questions. Typically aggregate scores range from 0 to 300. In 2002 and 2005 coincidentally, for example, the highest aggregate score for the PSLE was 282 and the lowest aggregate score was 86. [http://web.vjc.moe.edu.sg/students/v05v13_zhuangyym/scanned/psle_result.jpg]
All examination scripts are shipped to the Ministry of Education for processing, which then sends them to other teachers in Singapore on a random basis for marking. Part of this procedure is to prevent possible
biasin marking, either intentional or unintentional, that may result when teachers mark examination scripts of students from their own schools. The multiple choice questions are graded by a machine in the Ministry of Education, which reads the OAS sheets.
Pupils who fail the PSLE would be retained in primary school to retake the PSLE in the EM3 stream the following year.
Pupils who pass are required to choose up to six secondary schools to which they would be posted by aggregate score. A
computerwill then allocate slots to each school's intake for the next year. In line with the ideals of meritocracy, all pupils who attempted the PSLE would be "queued" in order of merit, with the places in schools being filled up from the highest scorer to the lowest scorer. Thus the pupil with a higher aggregate score would get into his school of second choice (if he was not accepted into his school of first choice) over a pupil with a lower aggregate score who chose the same school as the first choice. The score of the last pupil who was allocated is known as the "cut-off score" for the school for that year.
If none of the six schools chosen accept the pupil, the Ministry of Education will work towards finding a school that based on proximity and location, rather than academic excellence of the school, without consulting the student. This makes proper selection of the six choices important. Priority organisation of the choices is also important; if the pupil's score both meets the requirements of the school of his or her third choice and second choice for example, the second choice will be allocated without the pupil being able to change his or her decisions.
Before 2003, pupils picked their choices before they took the examination and received their score. From 2003, pupils picked their choices after they received their score, after complaints by parents they could not make informed choices about their children's secondary schools before the examination scores were received, as the pupils might perform much better or much worse than expected.
History and past performance
In the year 2007, A girl by the name of Natasha Nabila, from
St Hilda's Primary Schoolobtained a score of 294, which is the highest aggregate ever scored in the history of the revised PSLE scoring system in 14 years.
In the year 2006, the top student was Rebecca M.R.J. from
Raffles Girls' Primary Schoolwith an aggregate of 281.
In the year 1998, A boy by the name of Prikhshat Pal Singh, from Haig Boys' School obtained a score of 289, which was the highest aggregate ever scored by a single student before the current revision of the PSLE scoring system.
In the year 2005, 51,087 pupils sat for the examination, a 0.4% increase from the previous year. Out of the total 5434 were from EM3. The majority (or 97.8%) of the pupils could proceed for secondary school. 62.2% of those who passed were eligible for the Special/Express course and the remaining 35.6% were eligible for either the Normal (Academic) or Normal (Technical) courses. 1133 pupils (2.2%) of the cohort assessed was not ready for secondary school in the year 2006 or are more suited for
vocational training. The top student of 2005 was Adil Hakeem B Mohamad Rafee from Rosyth Schoolwho scored 282.
Controversy on flaws in papers
The 2005 mathematics paper for EM1 or EM2 students was flawed due to a question having no definite method of working the answer out. The "Question 13" was spotted by many and became infamous. The question was mathematically inconsistent in that one will get one set of answers when worked out one way and another set of answers when worked out by a different answer. The Singapore Examinations and Assessments Board acknowledged the mistake a few days after the exam, annulling the question and awarding 2 marks to every student for the question.
Other methods of admission to secondary schools
Students have the choice to go to other schools which does not use the posting system. Some of the top schools and the government schools have Direct School Admission. Some can go to other schools such as
Singapore Sports Schoolor the NUS High School of Mathematics and Science.
Direct School Admission
Independent schools and Autonomous schools can admit up to 20% and 10% of their students via the Direct School Admission scheme (abb. DSA) respectively. Students apply through exercises conducted by the schools around July and August, receiving notice of the results shortly after. Schools offering the
Integrated Programmecan take in as many students as they want via DSA. Other schools have also been granted permission by the Ministry to take in students specialising in the schools' niche areas up to a maximum of 5% of their total student intake. [http://www.moe.gov.sg/esp/schadm/dsa_sec/ Ministry of Education, Singapore: Direct School Admissions (Secondary) Exercise]
Since 2004, two international schools were given licenses to operate under the Ministry of Education's compulsory practices such as playing the National Anthem, and following the nation's bilingual policies, to allow Singaporean or Singapore Permanent Resident students to enter without the Ministry's permission. These schools were granted the permission in April 2004 and started the school year in January 2005. They are
Anglo-Chinese School (International)and Hwa Chong International. Another school was granted the permission to set up a school similar to the original two in 2006, the school is SJI Internationalwhich offers a similar programme to ACS (International). `
ingapore Sports School
The Singapore Sports School is for students who are perceived by the school to excel in
sports it offers. This includes swimming, badminton, table tennis, football or soccer, golf, track and fieldand sailing. It was opened in January 2004 and the school takes students directly into the school provided they have an active background in the sports offered by the school. When the school had its first intake, many students applied who were judged to excel in their sport but were posted to the Normal (Academic) or Normal (technical) streams. The school rejected these pupils as the school sought pupils who excelled both physically and academically. The school was criticised for being too result wise instead of grooming them into future sportsmen. Some of the students were finally accepted on an appeal basis after that. Students in the school aim for the International Baccalaureate (IB) paper as it is less strenuous in comparison to the A' Levels, allowing the students to focus on their sports, the Singapore Arts School follows similarly.
NUS High School
The NUS High School of Mathematics and Science opened in 2005 with an intake of 225 Secondary 1 and 3 students, offering a six-year programme leading to the NUS High Diploma. Students will also sit for
Advanced Placementand Scholastic Assessment Testexaminations in the senior years for benchmarks for admission into foreign universities. The school offers an accelerated mathematics and science curriculum based on a modular system, also offering languages, humanities, arts, and other elective subjects integrated into its modular system. Students are admitted based on several factors, performance in an application form, interviews, tests, and an admission camp. 25 places out of the 170 places offered in 2007 are also reserved for Primary 6 students wishing to apply with their PSLE results.
* [http://schools.moe.edu.sg/gmps/PSLE%20Update/Changes%20to%20PSLE%20format.doc Geylang Methodist Primary School] "Revised PSLE format for English language" - July 2005, URL accessed November 24, 2005.
* [http://ourstory.asia1.com.sg/dream/edu/edu.html Our Story] "Educating a nation" - 1998, URL accessed November 24, 2005.
* [http://schools.moe.edu.sg/greenwood/parents_briefing/P4_parents_briefing.pps] "Welcome to P4 Parents' Briefing 2007" - March 2008, URL accessed March 20  .
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