List of British monarchs


List of British monarchs
The Royal Arms of the United Kingdom since the accession of Queen Victoria, (1837), featuring the arms of England in the first and fourth quarters, Scotland in the second, and Ireland in the third. In Scotland a separate version is used, (shown right), whereby the Arms of Scotland take precedence.[1]

There have been 12 monarchs of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (the Monarchy of the United Kingdom). The united kingdom of Great Britain was formed on 1 May 1707 with the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, which had been in personal union under the House of Stuart since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, Great Britain merged with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After most of Ireland left the union on 6 December 1922, its name was amended on 12 April 1927 to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Contents

House of Stuart

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim
Anne
1 May 1707–1 August 1714
Anne1705.jpg 6 February 1665
St. James's Palace
daughter of James II and Anne Hyde[2]
George of Denmark
St. James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 children[2]
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
aged 49[2]
daughter of James II (cognatic primogeniture; Bill of Rights 1689)

House of Hanover

The Hanoverian succession came about as a result of the Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the Parliament of England. In return for access to the English plantations in North America, the Hanoverian succession and the Union were ratified by the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

After the death of Anne with no living children, George I, the son of Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England through his daughter Elizabeth of Bohemia, was the closest Protestant heir to the throne.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Succession right References
George I
1 August 1714 –
11 June 1727
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg 28 May 1660
Leineschloss
son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lueneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
Osnabrück
aged 67
son of Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James I & VI [3][4]
George II
11 June 1727 –
25 October 1760
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg 30 October 1683
Herrenhausen
son of George I and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lueneburg-Celle
Caroline of Ansbach
22 August 1705
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
aged 76
son of the preceding [5][6]
George III
25 October 1760 –
29 January 1820
George III in Coronation edit.jpg 4 June 1738
Norfolk House
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
aged 81
grandson of the preceding [7][8]
George IV
29 January 1820 –
26 June 1830
(Prince Regent since 1811)
George IV van het Verenigd Koninkrijk.jpg 12 August 1762
St James's Palace
son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1) Maria Anne Fitzherbert
Park Lane
15 September 1785
(2) Caroline of Brunswick
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor
aged 67
son of the preceding [9][10]
William IV
26 June 1830 –
20 June 1837
William IV.jpg 21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 children
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
aged 71
brother of the preceding [11][12]
Victoria
20 June 1837 –
22 January 1901
Melville - Queen Victoria.jpg 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
aged 81
niece of the preceding [13][14]

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Although he was the son and heir of Victoria, Edward VII inherited his father's names and is therefore counted as inaugurating a new royal house.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Succession right References
Edward VII
22 January 1901 –
6 May 1910
Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg 9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
son of Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
aged 68
son of the preceding [15][16]

House of Windsor

The house name Windsor was adopted in 1917, during the First World War. It was changed from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha because of wartime anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Succession right References
George V
6 May 1910 –
20 January 1936
George V of the united Kingdom.jpg 3 June 1865
Marlborough House
son of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
aged 70
son of the preceding [17][18]
Edward VIII
20 January –
11 December 1936 (abdicated)
A030596.jpg 23 June 1894
White Lodge
son of George V and Mary of Teck
Wallis Warfield Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
no children
28 May 1972
Bois de Boulogne
aged 77
son of the preceding [19][20]
George VI
11 December 1936 –
6 February 1952
King George VI of England, formal photo portrait, circa 1940-1946.jpg 14 December 1895
Sandringham House
son of George V and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 children
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
aged 56
brother of the preceding [21][22]
Elizabeth II
6 February
1952 – present
Elizabeth II, Buckingham Palace, 07 Mar 2006 crop.jpeg 21 April 1926
Mayfair
daughter of George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
Incumbent daughter of the preceding [23][24]

Timeline of British Monarchs

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Symbols of the Monarchy. Coats of Arms. - The official website of The British Monarchy". http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchUK/Symbols/Coatsofarms.aspx. Retrieved 2011-05-09. 
  2. ^ a b c "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10134". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10134.htm#i101338. Retrieved 25 October 2007. 
  3. ^ "George I". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheHanoverians/GeorgeI.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  4. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10099". thePeerage.com. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10099.htm#i100988. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  5. ^ "George II". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheHanoverians/GeorgeII.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  6. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10097". thePeerage.com. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10097.htm#i100968. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  7. ^ "George III". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheHanoverians/GeorgeIII.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  8. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10078". thePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p10078.htm#i100777. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  9. ^ "George IV". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheHanoverians/GeorgeIV.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  10. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10079". thePeerage.com. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10079.htm#i100788. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  11. ^ "William IV". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheHanoverians/WilliamIV.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  12. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10085". thePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p10085.htm#i100850. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  13. ^ "Victoria". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheHanoverians/Victoria.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  14. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10065". thePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p10065.htm#i100648. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  15. ^ "Edward VII". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/Saxe-Coburg-Gotha/EdwardVII.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  16. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10066". thePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p10066.htm#i100651. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  17. ^ "George V". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheHouseofWindsor/GeorgeV.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  18. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10067". thePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p10067.htm#i100661. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  19. ^ "Edward VIII". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheHouseofWindsor/EdwardVIII.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  20. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10068". thePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p10068.htm#i100678. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  21. ^ "George VI". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheHouseofWindsor/GeorgeVI.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  22. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10068". thePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p10068.htm#i100679. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  23. ^ "Her Majesty The Queen". Official website of the British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HMTheQueen/HMTheQueen.aspx. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  24. ^ "thePeerage.com – Person Page 10070". thePeerage.com. http://thepeerage.com/p10070.htm#i100699. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 

See also

External links


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