- Fife and drum blues
Fife and drum blues is a rural derivation of traditional
country blues. It is performed typically with one lead fife player often also the band leader and vocalist, and a troop of drummers. Unlike a drum corps, the drum troop is loosely structured. As such, a fife and drum band may have any number of snare, tom, and bass drumplayers. Fife and drum performances were familyaffairs often held at reunions and big picnics. It is suggested by most texts that it has roots not in the American Revolutionary War, but actually in Africa; the use of fife is merely a replacement for instruments the slaves had used in Africa.
Fifes were carved from
canethat grew locally. Drums were often hand-made, and equally often just percussive objects. The vocals seem to derive from two main styles:
call and responseof Black Spirituals
# Short, repetitive
The genre originates in very
ruralareas of the farmingSouth and today persists in a stretch of sparsely populated Southern statesstretching from northwest Georgia to an area south of Memphis. Notable performers are Napoleon Strickland, Dan Emmett, Othar Turner, and Jessie Mae Hemphill. Performers play blues songs as well as religious songs such as "When the Saints Go Marching In" and "When I Lay My Burden Down."
Ancient Fife and Drum Corps
Excelsior Brigade Fife and Drum Corps
Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps
*"American Patchwork: Songs and Stories of America", part 3: "The Land Where the Blues Began" (1990). Written, directed, and produced by Alan Lomax; developed by the Association for Cultural Equity at Columbia University and Hunter College. North Carolina Public TV; A Dibb Direction production for Channel Four. (Watch film: [http://www.folkstreams.net/film,109 The Land Where the Blues Began] )
*"Deep Blues" (1991). Directed by
*"Gravel Springs Fife and Drum" (1971). Filmed by Bill Ferris, recorded by David Evans, and edited by Judy Peiser. (Watch film: [http://www.folkstreams.net/film,59 Gravel Springs Fife and Drum]
# David Evans, "Black Fife and Drum Music in Mississippi"
# Howard W. Odum, "Religious Folk-Songs of the Southern Negro"
# Eileen Southern "The Music of Black Americans: A History"
# [http://www.folkstreams.net/context,86 http://www.folkstreams.net/context,86]
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