Electorate of Hanover


Electorate of Hanover

Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Kurfürstentum Hannover" "Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg"
conventional_long_name = Electorate of Hanover Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
common_name = Hanover
continent = Europe
region = Germany
country = Germany
status = Vassal
empire = Holy Roman Empire
status_text = State of the Holy Roman Empire in personal union with Great Britain
life_span = 1708-1803 1813-1814
event_start = Formally approved
year_start = 1708
date_start =
event_end = Congress of Vienna
year_end = 1814
date_end = October 12
event_pre = Elevation to Electorate
date_pre = 1692
event1 = Battle of Nations
date_event1 = October 19, 1813
p1 = Brunswick-Lüneburg
flag_p1 =
s1 = Kingdom of Westphalia
flag_s1 = Flag of the Kingdom of Westphalia.svg
s2 = Kingdom of Hanover
flag_s2 = Flag of Hanover (1692).svg








image_map_caption =
capital = Hanover
government_type = Monarchy
title_leader = Elector
leader1 = George I
year_leader1 = 1708-1727
leader2 = George II
year_leader2 = 1727-1760
leader3 = George III
year_leader3 = 1760-1814

The Electorate of Hanover (or, more formally, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg; _de. Kurfürstentum Hannover, Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) became the ninth Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692, when the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, elevated Duke Ernest Augustus to the rank of Elector of the Empire as a reward for aid given in the War of the Grand Alliance. There were protests against the addition of a new Elector, and the elevation did not become official until the approval of the Imperial Diet in 1708.

History

In 1714, George Louis became king of Great Britain, whereby Hanover and Britain were joined in personal union. The influence of the electors grew in Germany as well, as they inherited the formerly Swedish territories of Bremen and Verden in 1719, and as part of the German Mediatisation of 1803, the Electorate received the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück.

In 1803, the electorate was occupied by French and Prussian troops after the Convention of Artlenburg, and following the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807, its territories together with territories ceded from Prussia was created into the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by Napoleon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte. However, the government of George III did not recognize the French annexation, being at war continuously with France through the entire period, and Hanoverian ministers continued to operate out of London. The Hanoverian government maintained its own separate diplomatic service, which maintained links to countries such as Austria and Prussia, with whom the United Kingdom itself was technically at war. The Hanoverian army was dissolved, but many of the officers and soldiers went to England, where they formed the King's German Legion. The Legion was the only German army to fight continually during the whole Napoleonic wars against the French.

French control lasted until October 1813 when the territory was overrun by Russian Cossack troops, and the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig later the same month spelled the definitive end to the Napoleonic client state, as well as the entire Confederation of the Rhine, after which the House of Hanover was restored as rulers and elevated from their roles as prince-electors of a former vassal of the Holy Roman Empire, to monarchs of an independent kingdom, at the Congress of Vienna in 1814.

Electors of Hanover

In 1692, the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, elevated Ernest Augustus, son of Duke George, to the rank of Elector of the Empire as a reward for aid given in the War of the Grand Alliance. There were protests against the addition of a new Elector, and the elevation did not become official until the approval of the Imperial Diet in 1708, in the person of Ernest Augustus' son, George Louis. Though the Elector's titles were properly "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" and "Elector of the Holy Roman Empire", he is commonly referred to as the "Elector of Hanover" after his residence.

The Electorate was legally bound to be indivisible: it could add to its territory, but not alienate territory or be split up among several heirs; and its succession was to follow male primogeniture. The territory assigned to the Electorate included the Brunswick-Lüneburg duchies of Calenberg, Grubenhagen, and Celle (even though at the time Celle was ruled by Ernest Augustus' older brother) and the counties of Diepholz and Hoya.

*George I (1708–1727)
*George II (1727–1760)
*George III (1760–1814)

References

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