Lanna

Lanna

Lanna (English "One Million Rice Fields", _th. ล้านนา) was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city of Chiang Mai.

The kingdom was founded in 1296 by King Mangrai the Great, when he succeeded his father as the leader of the Ngoen Yang city state. In 1262 he founded the city Chiang Rai as his capital, naming it after himself. The kingdom quickly grew by unifying the many local Tai rulers of the area under his leadership, as well as by enlarging to the south by annexing the Mon kingdom of Hariphunchai in 1292 - the area around the modern-day city Lamphun. In 1296 he founded the city of Chiang Mai as the new capital of the kingdom with help from allies Ngam Muang of Phayao and Ramkhamhaeng of Sukhothai.

The golden age of Lanna was in the 15th century during the reign of Tilokkarat or Tilokaraja. In 1477 the 8th of the Buddhist councils was held near Chiang Mai, which worked on improving the Buddhist scriptures. The previously independent city state Nan, capital of a Tai Lue people, was added to the kingdom in 1449. Wars with Ayutthaya Kingdom, another Thai kingdom, also broke out.

Initial decline of the kingdom began in the early 16th century, and worsened after the death of King Kaeo in 1526. A war of succession ensued among the royal factions, kings were assassinated; or others had to abdicate. This political instability invited an invasion from the neighboring Burmese kingdom, and in 1558 Lanna had to surrender and thus became a vassal of Burma. When the dynasty of Mangrai became extinct in 1578, the Burmese sent their own princes to serve as rulers of Lanna.

The kings of Ayutthaya tried to capture Lanna several times, as the Burmese posed a threat to their kingdom as well. Even though around 1600 King Naresuan, and later in 1662 King Narai as well, succeeded in occupying Chiang Mai, they were repulsed by the Burmese after a short time.

In the early 1700s the Burmese divided the kingdom into a northern part, ruled from Chiang Saen, and a southern part, ruled from Chiang Mai. The northern part was for all practical purposes annexed by Burma, while the southern continued to be a vassal state.

After the Burmese destroyed Ayutthaya, King Taksin drove the Burmese out of Siam or Central Thailand. In Lanna, King Taksin helped Phraya Chaban (Bunma) of Chiang Mai and Prince Kawila of Lampang to successfully drive out the Burmese. On the night of February 14, 1774 Chiang Mai fell to the Siamese. Phraya Chaban (Bunma) ruled Chiang Mai as the first Duke of Chiang Mai and Prince Kawila became the first Duke of Lampang under Siamese rulership. King Rama I after ascending to the throne, awarded Kawila with more power, Kawila become the second Duke of Chiang Mai who ruled 57 cities. The two families became closer. Not only Princess Sri Anocha, Duke Kawila's sister, married to Vice King Boonma, King Rama I's only brother, but Princess Dararasmi, Duke Inthawichayanon's daughter also become King Rama V's Princess Consort. In 1877 a Viceroy from Bangkok was sent to help the duke. In 1899 Lanna was formally annexed by Siam, and administrated as the Monthon Phayap. The last of the Chiang Mai duke, Kaeo Nawarat, never held any true administrative power. Upon his death in 1939, no successor was named to replace him.

List of Lanna Monarchs

City States Period

Lawachangkarat "or" Lavachankaraja Dynasty

Ngoen Yang "or" Yon "or" Yonok State

* Lawachangkarat "or" Lavachankaraja "or" Lao Chong
* Lao Kao Kaeo Ma Mueang
* Lao Sao
* Lao Tang "or" Lao Phang
* Lao Klom "or" Lao Luang
* Lao Leo
* Lao Kap
* Lao Khim "or" Lao Kin
* Lao Khiang (The royal court moved to Ngeon Yang)
* Lao Khiu
* Lao Thoeng "or" Lao Ting
* Lao Tueng "or" Lao Toeng
* Lao Khon
* Lao Som
* Lao Kuak "or" Lao Phuak
* Lao Kiu "or" Lao Kwin
* Lao Chong
* Chom Pha Rueang
* Lao Choeng "or" Lao Chueang "or" Khun Chueang
* Lao Ngoen Rueang
* Lao Sin "or" Lao Chuen
* Lao Ming
* Lao Mueang "or" Lao Moeng
* Lao Meng
* Mangrai the Great, 1261-1311 (The first king of Mangrai dynasty in Chiang Mai)

Kingdom Period 1296-1558

Mangrai Dynasty

* Mangrai the Great, 1261-1311
* Chaiyasongkhram "or" Jayasangrama, 1311-1325
* Saenphu, 1325-1334
* Khamfu, 1334-1336
* Phayu, 1336-1355
* Kuena, 1355-1385
* Saenmueangma, 1385-1401
* Samfangkaen, 1402-1441
* Tilokkarat "or" Tilokaraja, 1441-1487
* Yotchiangrai, 1487-1495
* Kaeo "or" Mueangkaeo, 1495-1525
* Ket "or" Muang Ket Klao, 1525-1538 (1st reign)
* Saikham, 1538-1543
* Ket "or" Mueangketklao, 1543-1545 (2nd reign)
* Chiraprapha "or" Jiraprabha, 1545-1546 (queen's reign)
* Chaiyachettha "or" Jayajestha, 1546-1547
* "interregnum", 1547-1551
* Mekuti, 1551-1564 (Burmese conquest and control of Lanna 1558)
* Wisutthathewi "or" Visuddhadevi, 1564-1578 (queen's reign)

Lanna under Burmese rule 1578-1774

Governorate of Chiang Mai

* Sawathi Noratra Mangsosi, 1578-1607 (Burmese ruled Lanna directly)
* Phra Choi, 1607-1608 (1st time)
* Phra Chaiyathip, 1608-1613
* Phra Choi, 1613-1615 (2nd time)
* Duke Sisongmueang of Nan, 1615-1631
* Phraya Luang Thipphanet, 1631-1655
* Phra Saen Muang, 1655-1659
* Duke of Phrae, 1659-1672
* Viceroy Uangsae of Ava, 1672-1675
* Cheputrai, 1675-1707
* Mang Raenara, 1707-1727
* Thepsing "or" Debasingha, 1727 (independent ruler)
* Ong Kham, 1727-1759
* Ong Chan, 1759-1761
* Khihut, 1761-1763
* Po Aphai Khamini, 1763-1768
* Po Mayu Nguan, 1768-1774

Ducal Period under Thai or Siamese Protector 1774-1899

Early Duchy of Chiang Mai

* Phraya Chaban (Bunma) 1774-1782

House of Chao Chet Ton or Thipchang

Duchy of Chiang Mai 1782-1939

* Kawila, 1782-1813 (Ex-Duke of Lampang)
* Thammalangka "or" Dharmalanka, 1813-1822
* Khamfan, 1823-1825 (Ex-Duke of Lamphun)
* Phutthawong "or" Buddhavansa, 1826-1846
* Mahotaraprathet, 1847-1854
* Kawirolot Suriyawong, 1856-1870
* Inthawichayanon, 1873-1896
* Inthawarorot Suriyawong, 1901-1909 (Thai annexed Lanna)
* Kaeo Navarat, 1911-1939 (title dissolved)

Duchy of Lampang 1732-1925

* Thipchang, 1732-1759 (Burmese Era)
* Chaikaeo, 1759-1774 (Burmese Era)
* Kawila, 1774-1782 (The first ruler under Siamese, became Duke of Chiang Mai in 1782)
* Khamsom, 1782-1794
* Duangthip, 1794-1825
* Chaiwong "or" Jayavansa, 1825-1838
* Khattiya, 1838
* Noi In, 1838-1848 (Ex-Duke of Lamphun)
* Worayannarangsi "or" Varayanaransi, 1848-1873
* Phrommaphiwong "or" Brahmabhivansa, 1873-1887
* Suriya Changwang "or" Surya Changwang, 1887
* Noranan Chaichawalit "or" Narananda Jayajavalit, 1887-1897
* Bunyawat Wongmanit "or" Bunyavadya Vansamanit, 1897-1922 (Thai annexed Lanna)
* Chao Ratchabut (Noi Mueangphruan), 1922-1925 (title dissolved)

Duchy of Lamphun 1805-1943

* Khamfan, 1805-1815 (Duke of Chiang Mai in 1823)
* Bunmamueang, 1815-1827
* Noi In, 1827-1837 (Duke of Lampang in 1838)
* Khamtan, 1838-1841
* Thammalangka "or" Dharmalanka, 1841-1843
* Chailangkaphisan Sophakkhun, 1848-1871
* Daradirekratphairot, 1871-1888
* Hemphinphaichit, 1888-1895
* Inthayongyotchot, 1895-1911 (Thai annexed Lanna)
* Chakkham Khachonsak, 1911-1943 (title dissolved)

All the rulers of this dynasty : [http://www.chiangmai-chiangrai.com/images/tipchang.jpg]

Historical Writings on Lanna

* The Chiang Mai chronicles - Probably started in the late 15th century and enlarged with every copying of the palm leaves manuscript. Current version is from 1828, English translation available as ISBN 974-7100-62-2.
* Jinakaramalini - composed by Ratanapañña (16th c.) an account of the early rise of Buddhism in Thailand and details on many historical events.

References

* Hans Penth - "A brief history of Lan Na", ISBN 974-7551-32-2
* Michael Freeman - "Lanna, Thailand's Northern Kingdom", ISBN 974-8225-27-5
* David K. Wyatt, Aroonrut Wichienkeeo - "The Chiang Mai Chronicle", ISBN 974-7100-62-2
* คณะทายาทสายสกุล เจ้าหลวงเมืองพะเยา, สถาบันศิลปวัฒนธรรมโยนก. ครบรอบ 100 ปี แม่เจ้าทรายมูล (มหาวงศ์) ไชยเมือง และประวัติสายสกุลเจ้าหลวงเมืองพะเยา พุทธศักราช 2387 - 2456. พะเยา : บ.ฮาซัน พริ้นติ้ง จก., 2546
* คัมภีร์ คัมภีรญาณนนท์, นาวาอากาศเอก. เจ้านายฝ่ายเหนือ
* นงเยาว์ กาญจนจารี, ดารารัศมี : พระประวัติพระราชชายา เจ้าดารารัศมี. เชียงใหม่ : สุริวงศ์บุ๊คเซนเตอร์, 2539
* ปราณี ศิริธร ณ พัทลุง, เพ็ชร์ล้านนา. เชียงใหม่ : ผู้จัดการ ศูนย์ภาคเหนือ (ครั้งที่ 2), 2538
* เจ้าวงศ์สัก ณ เชียงใหม่, คณะทายาทสายสกุล ณ เชียงใหม่. เจ้าหลวงเชียงใหม่. กรุงเทพฯ : อมรินทร์พริ้นติ้ง แอนด์ พับลิชชิ่ง จำกัด (มหาชน), 2539
* สมหมาย เปรมจิตต์, สถาบันวิจัยสังคม มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่. ตำนานสิบห้าราชวงศ์ (ฉบับสอบชำระ). เชียงใหม่ : มิ่งเมือง, 2540
* สรัสวดี อ๋องสกุล, ประวัติศาสตร์ล้านนา. กรุงเทพฯ : อมรินทร์พริ้นติ้ง (พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 2), 2539
* ศักดิ์ รัตนชัย, พงศาวดารสุวรรณหอคำนครลำปาง (ตำนานเจ้าเจ็ดพระองค์กับหอคำมงคล ฉบับสอบทานกับเอกสารสืบค้น สรสว.ลำปาง)
* http://www.globalgroup.in.th/encyclopedia_lanna.html.


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