- Duke in Bavaria
The title Duke in Bavaria ( _de. Herzog in Bayern) was accorded in 1799 for Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen and his descendants, who formed a cadet branch of the
House of Wittelsbach, which had been the ruling house of Bavariasince 1180. The title Duke "of" Bavaria had been used for the rulers of Bavariafrom 548 until Bavaria was elevated to the status of an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empirein 1623 (with some interruptions when Bavaria was subdivided; see Rulers of Bavaria).
16 February 1799, the head of the House of Wittelsbach Elector Charles Theodor of Bavaria died. At the time there were two surviving branches of the Wittelsbach family: Zweibrücken (headed by Duke Maximilian Joseph) and Birkenfeld (headed by Count Palatine Wilhelm). Maximilian Joseph inherited Charles Thedore's title of Elector of Bavaria, while Wilhelm was compensated with the title of Duke "in" Bavaria. The form Duke "in" Bavaria was selected because in 1506 primogeniturehad been established in the House of Wittelsbach resulting in there being only one Duke "of" Bavaria at any given time.Fact|date=July 2008
1965there were only two male members of the family, Duke Ludwig Wilhelm and his cousin Duke Luitpold; both were elderly and had no children. On 18 March 1965Duke Ludwig Wilhelm adopted Prince Max of Bavaria, the second son of Albrecht, Duke of Bavariaand the grandson of Ludwig Wilhelm's sister Marie Gabrielle. From this point onwards Max has used the surname "Herzog in Bayern" in place of the surname "Prinz von Bayern". Max has five daughters all of whom were born with the surname "Herzogin in Bayern".
Wilhelm, the first Duke in Bavaria, was descended from the line of "Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen". His ancestors were:
Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken(1526 – 1569), m. Anna of Hesse.
Karl I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld(1560 - 1600), fifth son of Wolfgang, m. Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Christian I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Bischweiler(1598 - 1654), third son of Karl, m. his cousin Magdalene Katharine of Zweibrücken, a daughter of John II, Count Palatine of Pfalz-Zweibrückenand Cathérine de Rohan.
Johann Karl of Zweibrücken-Gelnhausen(1638 - 1704), second surviving son of Christian, m. Esther Marie von Witzleben. They were parents of several sons.
Johann of Zweibrücken-Gelnhausen(1698 - 1780), second son of Johann Karl, m. Sophie Charlotte of Wild, father of Wilhelm, Duke in Bavaria.
Dukes in Bavaria
The members of the family used the title Duke or Duchess in Bavaria, with the style of
*Wilhelm (1752-1837), m. 1780 Countess Palatine Maria Anna of Birkenfeld (1753-1824), and had issue:
**Maria Elisabeth Amalie Franziska (1784-1849), m. 1808
Louis Alexandre Berthier, sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel (1753-1815), and had issue.
**Pius August (1786-1837), m. 1807 Princess and Duchess Amalie of
Arenberg(1789-1823), and had issue:
***Maximilian Joseph (1808-1888), m. 1828 Princess Ludovika of Bavaria (1808-1892) and had issue:
****Ludwig Wilhelm (1831-1920), left morganatic issue [for which see [http://www.wargs.com/royal/larisch.html here] .] .
****Wilhelm Karl (1832-1833).
****Caroline Helen (1834-1890), m. 1858 Hereditary Prince Maximilian of
Thurn and Taxis(1831-1867) and had issue.
****Elisabeth (1837-1898), m. 1854 Emperor
Franz Josef of Austria(1830-1916) and had issue.
****Karl Theodor (1839-1909), m. 1865 Princess Sophie of Saxony (1845-1867) and had issue:
*****Amalie Marie (1865-1912), m. 1892 Duke Wilhelm of Urach (1864-1928) and had issue.
****Karl Theodor m. secondly 1874 Infanta Maria Josefa of Portugal (1857-1943) and had further issue:
*****Sophie (1875-1957), m. 1898 Count Hans Viet of Toerring-Jettenbach (1862-1929) and had issue.
*****Elisabeth (1876-1965), m. 1900 King
Albert I of the Belgians(1875-1934) and had issue.
*****Marie Gabrielle (1878-1912), m. 1900 Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria (1869-1955) and had issue.
*****Ludwig Wilhelm (1884-1968), m. 1917 Princess Eleonore of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (1880-1965); in 1965 he adopted:
******Prince Max of Bavaria (born 1937), who thereby became Duke in Bavaria; he m. 1967 Countess Elizabeth Douglas (born 1940) and has issue:
*******Sophie (born 1967), m. 1993 Hereditary Prince Alois of Liechtenstein (born 1968) and has issue.
*******Marie Caroline (born 1969), m. 1991 Duke Philipp of Württemberg (born 1964) and has issue.
*******Helene (born 1972).
*******Elizabeth (born 1973), m. 2004 Dr. Daniel Terberger (born 1967) and has issue.
*******Anna (born 1975), m. 2007 Klaus Runow.
*****Franz Josef (1888-1912).
****Maria Sophie (1841-1925), m. 1859 King Francesco II of the Two Sicilies (1836-1894) and had issue.
****Mathilde Ludovika (1843-1925), m. 1861 Prince Lodovico of the Two Sicilies, Count of Trani (1838-1886) and had issue.
****Sophie Charlotte (1847-1897), m. 1868 Prince Ferdinand of Orléans, Duke of Alençon (1844-1910) and had issue.
****Maximilian Emanuel (1849-1893), m. 1875 Princess Amalie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1848-1894) and had issue:
*****Christoph (1879-1963), m. 1924 Anna Sibig (1874-1958).
* [http://genealogy.euweb.cz/wittel/wittel6.html#WiB The descendants of Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen]
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