othernames=Hakelwerk; _de. Tuckum
Tukums (audio|Tukumspronunc.ogg|pronunciation) is a city in
Latvia. Three regions of Latvia meet in the vicinity of Tukums - Vidzeme, Zemgaleand Kurzeme. The city was host to the Cold Warfacility Tukums air base.
The historical center of Tukums developed between trade routes leading from the mouth of the
Daugava Riverto Prussia. The oldest part is today's Talsi Street that originated at the river named Zvirgzdupite where there used to be a castle mound with a wooden castle. Since 1253 Tukums was ruled by the Livonian order. A masonry castle was built on the bank of the Slocene in the end of the 13th century. The castle was surrounded by settlements of German tradesmen and craftsmen. A marketplace was formed in front of the castle and some new streets appeared later running in various directions from the market place.
With the development of trade in the 16th century a new straighter trade route to Prussia was built along a new street that is called Liela (large) Street today. This street had an important role in the life of the settlement. Public buildings, major business, workshops and shops were concentrated in it.
After the disintegration of the Livonian Order a new state, the Kurzeme Dukedom was established. Like many other settlements Tukums had suffered greatly the numerous feudal wars. Under the rule of Duke Jacob (1642-1682) Tukums experienced a rapid economic boom. At the time a new trade route from Tukums to
Jelgava, the capital of Kurzeme Dukedom, was opened along today's Jelgavas Street, and another route was made along today's Raudas Street towards it. A dam was built and a lake made near the road to Jelgava. A flour mill and a cooper furnace started functioning there, and cooper was exported to foreign countries. The town, inhabited by only 800 people was quite small. The new adornment of Tukums was the lake. The church spire was another landmark added to the skyline in 1687.
After 1795 Kurzeme was incorporated in
Russia. In November of the same year the Russian Tsaritsa Katherine signed a document to divide Kurzeme into regions and to grant regional center rights to several urban settlements, Tukums being one of them.
The town borders were marked in 1800 and the first urban map was made only two years later. The town continued growing. It included 131 private houses, mostly wooden, and 6 pubs. There were 690 male and 832 female inhabitants. The first school was opened in 1806. Street pavement was introduced in 1860 and street lighting started in 1875. A more rapid development of the town was observed after the opening of the Riga-Tukums railway line in 1877 and of another line connecting Tukums with
Ventspilsa little later. 24 enterprises were functioning in Tukums in 1897: tanneries, wood carding-mills, a glue plant and also pottery and food production facilities. The two windmills brought out the uniqueness of the townscape.
The town grew with the development of industry. Two new districts appeared. The rich built their houses in the eastern part around Elizabetes, Pils and Baznicas Streets, but the workers settled more to the west, forming an area of small houses surrounded by gardens. This part of Tukums was further developed during the year in 1935. In the beginning of the 1930s there were 8000 inhabitants and 73 functioning industrial enterprises in Tukums.
Legends of Tukums
Legendsays, that in the old days, when first people came to this area, which was very flat, people started to build houses, clear woodlands and cultivatefields. But it was hard to live because this area were apsest with so many devils. They were living in Gailisu (Cockerel's) forest and every night destroyed everything that people had built during the day. People of this village tried everything to sceare them away, but it was impossible. One day they heard that not far from them, in Smardes swamp lived a giant. They went out to meet the giant and asked him for help. Being a very good-natured, giant went with people, stood at the side of the forest and called the devils out. They were sleeping very tight after the prior night's jobs, so it was a very long time before one of them came out and asked to giant why he was yelling. Words led to a fight. Even though the giant was very strong, the devils were many and had horns and nails. The fight lasted till evening. The devils, whining and licking their wounds, disappeared forever. But the giant was hurt. The devil's horns tore his stomoch and all his intestines came out. He tried to hold on, but it was useless. Taking a few steps, giant fell and died. Today people say that his grave is "Milzu kalns" (Giant hill), and the smaller hills, which are all around the city are his intestines. From that day on people in this area lived in peace and prosperty, building beautiful houses and gardens.
Another legend tells how one man in this village was very poor. When his wife gave a birth to his child no one wanted to be his godfather. So man decided to go on the road and ask everybody to be for his child's godfather. After a while came an old man who asked him what is the name of the village down there. But the poor man, in fear of losing the chance to have this man as a godfatner, didn't even listen to his words, and just screamed, "You Godfather! You Godfather! ("Tu kums! Tu kums! - in Latvian). So Tukums got its name.
Places near Tukums
Jaunpils Castle is the only fortified castle of the
Order of Livoniathat remains in Latvia. It was built in 1301. An exhibition hall and museum are located there dedicated to the history of the district. Jaunpils Lutheran Church which was built in 1592 is located near the castle.
Jaunmoku Palace (1901), 5 km from Tukums, surrounded by the picturesque Kurzemes hills, hosts an exhibition on forestry. Jaunmoku Palace is a combination of Art-Nouveau elements and Neo-Gothic forms and was built as the country residence of
George Armitstead, mayor of Riga (1901-12).
Durbe manor house, rebuilt in 1820, is a classical style palace, surrounded by landscaped park. A stone bridge across the ravine and a rotunda are located near the manor house.
The Schlokenbeck estate ensemble in Milzkalne, dating from the 15th century, is the only fortified manor house in Latvia. A museum on the history of broad building techniques and an exposition of horse gear is set up there.
Zante region is distinguished by unique and interesting objects. Here is the highest peak of Tukums district - Smiltinkalns (153m), in the center of Zante you will find the Red Army tank - evidence of the battles in "
Courland Pocket" in 1944-1945.
The country of Zentene and Seme welcomes the visitors with a traditional northern landscape of Kurzeme - hills, curved roads, unique objects of nature and interesting places of culture history.
The seashore of Tukums district stretches to the length of 50km, where old fishermen's huts alternate with modern villas, the sandy beaches interchange with rocky shores and meadows.
Kandavawas the capital of an ancient Couronian state named Vanema. In the beginning of the 13th century, German knights build their castle there. Unfortunately, not much has been preserved from that time. In the Middle Ages, Kandava underwent numerous wars, fires and plague epidemics. Tourists are attracted by the surroundings of Kandava hills covered with dense forests and the rapids of the Abava River. Kandava marks the beginning of the most gorgeous run of the Abava valley, which was named the Switzerland of Kurzeme as early as the 19th century.
Places in Tukums
* Castle Tower of Tukums - Brivibas square 19a
* Durbe Manor house - M.Parka street 7
* Jaunmokas Palace Museum - Jaunmokas
* Jaunpils Museum - Jaunpils
* Pastarins Museum - Bisnieki, Zentene
* Slokenbeka Manor - Milzkalne
* Tukums Museum - Harmonijas street 7
Ādolfs Bļodnieks, Prime Minister of Latvia.
Dainis Kūla, former Javelin thrower, 1980 Olympic champion.
Jevgēņijs Kosmačovs, FK Ventspilsand Latvian national football team midfielder.
Reinis Ruža, The Latvias best karete member who trains in Tukums.
Neatkarīgās Tukuma Ziņas
* [http://wikitravel.org/en/Tukums Information for tourists]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Tukums — (dt.: Tuckum) … Deutsch Wikipedia
TUKUMS — (Ger. Tuckum), city in Zemgale province, Latvia. In 1800 Tukums had a Jewish population of 272, of whom 17 were merchants. Records from the following year show that the Jewish community had a rabbi, a ḥevra kaddisha, a community council, and a… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Tukums — Administration Pays … Wikipédia en Français
Tukums — Original name in latin Tukums Name in other language Tukkum, Tukum, Tukumas, Tukums, Тукумс State code LV Continent/City Europe/Riga longitude 56.96694 latitude 23.15528 altitude 63 Population 18348 Date 2012 01 16 … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Tukums — Sp Tùkumas Ap Tukums L Latvija … Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė
Tukums (air base) — Infobox Airport name = Tukums nativename = nativename a = nativename r = image width = caption = IATA = ICAO = type = Military owner = operator = city served = location = Tukums elevation f = 233 elevation m = 71 coordinates =… … Wikipedia
Tukums District — Latvian districts| 2= 3=53,734 4=2,450 5=21.93 6= [http://rajons.tukums.lv/ rajons.tukums.lv/] The Tukums District ( lv. Tukuma rajons) is an administrative division of Latvia, located in the Courland region, in the country s west … Wikipedia
FK Tukums 2000 — Football club infobox clubname = FK Tukums 2000 fullname = Futbola klubs Tukums 2000/Tukuma sporta skola founded = 2000 ground = Slocene stadions, Tukums, Latvia capacity = chairman = flagicon|Latvia Ainārs Vahtelis manager = flagicon|Latvia… … Wikipedia
Municipalidad de Tukums — Municipalidad de Tukuma Tukuma novads Municipalidad de Letonia … Wikipedia Español
Hotel Tukums — (Тукумс,Латвия) Категория отеля: Адрес: Pils iela 9, Тукумс, LV 3101, Латвия … Каталог отелей