- Automotive aerodynamics
forces at high speeds. For some classes of racing vehicles, it may also be important to produce desirable downwards aerodynamic forces to improve traction and thus cornering abilities.
An aerodynamic automobile will integrate the
wheelarcs and lights in its shape to have a small surface. It will be streamlined, for example it does not have sharp edges crossing the wind stream above the windshieldand will feature a sort of tail called a fastbackor Kammbackor liftback.Note that the Aptera Typ-1, the Loremo, and the Volkswagen_1-litre_cartry to reduce the area of their back.It will have a flat and smooth floor to support the Venturi effectand produce desirable downwards aerodynamic forces. The air that rams into the engine bay, is used for cooling, combustion, and for passengers, then reaccelerated by a nozzleand then ejected under the floor.For mid and rear engines air is decelerated and pressurized in a diffuser, loses some pressure as it passes the engine bay, and fills the slipstream. These cars need a seal between the low pressure region around the wheels and the high pressure around the gearbox.They all have a closed engine bay floor.The suspension is either streamlined (Aptera) or retracted. Door handles, the antenna, and roof rails can have a streamlined shape. The side mirror can only have a round fairing as a nose.Air flow through the wheel-bays is said to increase drag ( [http://www.welt.de/wissenschaft/article1930599/Neue_Aero-Raeder_senken_Spritverbrauch.html German source] ) though race cars need it for brake cooling and a lot of cars emit the air from the radiator into the wheel bay.
Automotive aerodynamics differs from aircraft aerodynamics in several ways. First, the characteristic shape of a road vehicle is bluff , compared to an aircraft. Second, the vehicle operates very close to the ground, rather than in free air. Third, the operating speeds are lower. Fourth, the ground vehicle has fewer degrees of freedom than the aircraft, and its motion is less affected by aerodynamic forces.
Automotive aerodynamics is studied using both computer modelling and
wind tunneltesting. For the most accurate results from a wind tunnel test, the tunnel is sometimes equipped with a rolling road. This is a movable floor for the working section, which moves at the same speed as the air flow. This prevents a boundary layerforming on the floor of the working section and affecting the results. Drag coefficient(Cd) is a commonly published rating of a car's aerodynamic smoothness, related to the shape of the car. Multiplying Cd by the car's frontal area gives an index of total drag. The result is called "drag area", and is listed below for several cars. The width and height of curvy cars lead to gross overestimation of frontal area. These numbers use the manufacturer's frontal area specifications from the [http://www.mayfco.com/tbls.htm Mayfield Company Homepage] .
Relationship to velocity
It is well known that the frictional force of aerodynamic drag increases significantly with vehicle speed. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=37IHClTXkIEC&pg=PA35&dq=%22automobile+aerodynamics&ei=p0oGR5fPO6bqoQLVvKyqDQ&sig=rHKVxloak0qgjaM2ikon66vxEPA] Tuncer Cebeci, Jian P. Shao, Fassi Kafyeke, Eric Laurendeau, "Computational Fluid Dynamics for Engineers: From Panel to Navier-Stokes", Springer, 2005, ISBN 3540244514] As early as the 1920s engineers began to consider automobile shape in reducing aerodynamic drag at higher speeds. By the 1950s German and British automotive engineers were systematically analyzing the effects of automotive drag for the higher performance vehicles. [Proceedings: Institution of Mechanical Engineers (Great Britain). Automobile Division: Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Great Britain (1957)] By the late 1960s scientists also became aware of the significant increase in sound levels emitted by automobiles at high speed. These effects were understood to increase the intensity of sound levels for adjacent land uses at a non-linear rate. [C. Michael Hogan & Gary L. Latshaw, [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/wcpa/top3mset/2930880 "The relationship between highway planning and urban noise"] , Proceedings of the ASCE, Urban Transportation Division specialty conference, May 21/23, 1973, Chicago, Illinois.by American Society of Civil Engineers. Urban Transportation Division] Soon highway engineers began to design roadways to consider the speed effects of aerodynamic drag produced sound levels, and automobile manufacturers considered the same factors in vehicle design.
Automobile drag coefficients
Ground effect in cars
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