Fuente Ovejuna


Fuente Ovejuna

"Fuente Ovejuna" is a play by the Spanish playwright, Lope de Vega. First published in Madrid in 1619 as part of "Docena Parte de las Comedias de Lope de Vega" ("Volume 12 of the Collected plays of Lope de Vega"), [Edwards xii] the play is believed to have been written between 1612 and 1614. [Morley 330-1] The play is based upon an actual historical incident that took place in the village of Fuente Ovejuna in Castile in 1476. [Edwards xii] While under the command of the Order of Calatrava, a commander, Fernán Gómez de Guzmán, mistreated the villagers, who banded together and killed him. When a magistrate sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon arrived at the village to investigate, the villagers, even under the pain of torture, responded only by saying "Fuente Ovejuna did it."

Background

Rapid change took place in Spain in the almost 150 years from the original events at Fuente Ovejuna (now called Fuente Obejuna) in 1476 to the writing of Lope's play around 1612. In that time, Spain had united under the Habsburgs and become a world super-power with the discovery of the New World. At the time of Lope's writing, Spain was still in the midst of a Golden Age, a renaissance in the arts and academics. In 1469, seven years before the events at Fuente Ovejuna, Princess Isabella of Castile married Prince Ferdinand II of Aragon. With their marriage, the two major kingdoms of Spain, Castile and Aragon, were joined. This marriage would later bring the end to the Christian "Reconquista" of Spain from the Muslim Moors. When Isabella ascended the throne upon the death of her half-brother, Enrique IV, in 1474, Alfonso V of Portugal crossed into Spain in order to secure the throne for Juana, Princess of Castile, the daughter of Enrique. At the Battle of Toro, two years later, Isabella and Ferdinand's forces defeated the forces of Juana and Alfonso.

The same year, Ciudad Real was attacked by knights of the Order of Calatrava under the leadership of its Grand Master, 17-year old Rodrigo Téllez Girón, who supported the claims to the throne by Alfonso and Juana. The city was of strategic importance due to its location near the border of Castile. It was during this invasion that Commander Guzmán was killed by the villagers of Fuente Ovejuna after he treated them poorly. After no single guilty party was found, Ferdinand pardoned the villagers from Fuente Ovejuna. [Edwards xii-xiii]

ynopsis

The first act opens in the home of the Grand Master of the Order of Calatrava, Rodrigo Téllez Girón. Here, a commander of the order, Fernán Gómez de Guzmán, urges his superior to seize the town of Ciudad Real in the name of Juana and Alfonso of Portugal. Girón decides to capture the city. The village and villagers of Fuente Ovejuna are introduced and speak of love. The Commander enters and attempts to take two of the women, Laurencia and Pascuala, back to his castle, but they resist and escape. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella discuss the capture of Ciudad Real and vow to retake it. Later, two of the lovers, Laurencia and Frondoso meet in the forest. When the Commander approaches, Frondoso hides and watches as the Commander attempts to force himself on Laurencia. As the Commander has put down his crossbow, Frondoso steps out and takes it. As Laurencia escapes his grasp, Fronodoso points the crossbow at the Commander, but does not threaten him, leaving with only the crossbow as the Commander curses both of them.

Act II begins in the village with a discussion among the peasants that is interrupted by the entrance of the Commander. He demands Esteban, Laurencia's father, to allow him to have her but he refuses and the Commander takes this as an insult. A soldier enters and begs the Commander to return to Ciudad Real (Royal City) which has just been surrounded by the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella. After the exit of the Commander, Laurencia and Pascuala run on with one of the peasants, Mengo. They are met by another peasant girl, Jacinta, who is being pursued by the Commander's servants. When Mengo protects her, they are both seized by the Commander's lackeys who will whip Mengo while Jacinta is raped by the Commander and then given to his men. Shortly afterwards, Esteban agrees to allow Laurencia and Frondoso marry. The wedding proceeds but is interrupted by the Commander who arrests Frondoso, for his threat with the crossbow, as well as Esteban and Laurencia who protest his arrest.

The third act opens with the men of the village meeting to decide how to handle the situation. Laurencia, having been beaten and subject to attempted rape (though she beats off her attackers and escapes) enters and is not immediately recognized. She reprimands the men for not attempting to rescue her inspiring the men to kill the Commander. They exit and Laurencia gathers the women to join them in the killing. While preparations are being made to hang Frondoso, the band of villagers enters and kills the Commander and one of his servants. Flores, the surviving servant escapes and rushes to Ferdinand and Isabella to tell what has happened. The shocked rulers order a magistrate to the village to investigate. The villagers, celebrating with the head of the Commander, are told of the magistrate's approach. To save themselves, they decide not to name any individual in the Commander's death, only to say "Fuente Ovejuna did it". The magistrate proceeds to torture men, women and young boys on the rack but gives up after not receiving a satisfactory answer. Ferdinand and Isabella pardon the Grand Master and when the villagers enter and tell their story, they are pardoned as well. [Edwards, pp. 1-79.]

The play has been filmed several times in Spanish and other European languages but never in English

English Play

An English version of Fuente Ovejuna played for the 2008 season, at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival, in Straftord, Ontario, Canada. This version of the play starred Scott Wentworth, Jonathan Goad and Sara Topham. It was directed by Laurence Boswell. The play ran until October 4, 2008 [Globe and Mail, Globe Review, June 30, 2008 (Page R7)]

References

*Edwards, Gwynne, ed. "Lope de Vega, Three Major Plays". Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1999, ISBN 0-19-283337-5
*Morley, S. Griswold and C. Bruerton. "Cronologia de las Comedias de Lope de Vega." Madrid, 1968.

Notes

External links

* [http://www2.ups.edu/community/mellon/velez/lopedevega/fuente.htm Study Guide]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/dramaon3/pip/g47pt/ BBC Radio 3 play adapted by Adrian Mitchel, broacast on the 5 August 2007]
* [http://www.stratfordfestival.ca/plays/fuente.cfm/ 2008 Stratford Shakespeare Festival production of a new version by Laurence Boswell]


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