- Timeline of Buddhism
Foundation to the Common Era
Some sources give the date of the Buddha's birth as 563 BCE and others as 624 BCE; Theravada Buddhist countries tend to use the latter figure. This displaces all the dates in the following table about 61 years further back. See [http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/history/thera_timeline.htm Theravada Buddhism] .
There is controversy about the base date of the
Buddhist Era, with 544 BCand 483 BCbeing advanced as the date of the "parinibbana" of the Buddha. As Wilhelm Geigerpointed out, the Sri Lankan chronicles, the " Dipavamsa" and " Mahawamsa" are the primary sources for ancient South Asian chronology; they date the consecration("abhisheka") of Asokato 218 years after the "parinibbana". Chandragupta Mauryaascended the throne 56 years prior to this, or 162 years after the "parinibbana". The approximate date of Chandragupta's ascension is known to be within two years of 321 BC(from Megasthenes). Hence the approximate date of the "parinibbana" is between 485 and 481 BC - which accords well with the Mahayanadating of 483 BC.cite book
last = Geiger (Tr)
first = Wilhelm
title = The Mahawamsa or Great Chronicle of Ceylon
publisher = Oxford University Press (for the Pali Text Society)
date = 1912
location = Oxford
pages = 300
url = http://lakdiva.org/culavamsa/vol_0.html
isbn = ]
The difference between the two reckonings seems to have occurred at sometime between the reigns of the Sri Lankan kings Udaya III (
946- 954or 1007- 1015)and Pârakkama Pandya (c. 1046- 1048), when there was considerable unrest in the country.
* 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in
Lumbiniinto a leading family in the republicof the Shakyas, which is now part of Nepal.
* 534 BCE: Prince Siddhartha goes outside the palace for the first time and sees
The Four Sights: an old man, an ill man, a dead man, and a holy man. He is shocked by the first three—he did not know what age, disease, and death were—but is inspired by the holy man to give up his wealth. He leaves his house and lives with three ascetics. However, he wants more than to starve himself, so he becomes a religious teacher.
* 528 BCE: Siddhartha attains Enlightenment in
Buddha Gaya(modern-day Bodhgaya), then travels to a deer park in Sarnath(near Varanasi), India, and begins expounding the Dharma.
528 BCEAccording to legend, Trapusha and Bhallika, two trader-brothers from Okkala (modern-day Yangon), offer the Gautama's first meal as the enlightened Buddha. The Buddha gives eight strands of his hair to the two brothers; the strands are brought back to Burma and enshrined in the Shwedagon Pagoda. Thus, according to myth, this is the year when the Shwedagon Pagoda was built.
*c. 490–410 BCE: Life of the Buddha, according to recent research. [ [http://indology.info/papers/cousins/ INDOLOGY - The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article ] ]
483 BCE: Gautama Buddhadies ('attains "parinibbana"') at Kusinara (now called Kushinagar), India. Three months following his death, the First Buddhist Councilis convened.
383 BCE: The Second Buddhist Councilis convened by King Kalasokaand held at Vaisali.
250 BCE: Third Buddhist Council, convened by Ashoka the Greatand chaired by Moggaliputta Tissa, compiles the " Kathavatthu" to refute the heretical views and theories held by some Buddhist sects. Ashoka issues a number of edicts ( Edicts of Ashoka) about the kingdom in support of Buddhism.
250 BCE: Emperor Ashoka the Greatsends various Buddhist missionaries to faraway countries, as far as Chinaand the Mon & Malay kingdoms in the east and the Hellenistic kingdoms in the west, in order to make Buddhism known to them.
250 BCE: First fully developed examples of Kharosthī script date from this period (the Aśokan inscriptions at Shāhbāzgarhī and Mānsehrā, a northwestern Indian subcontinent).
*200s BCE: Indian traders regularly visit ports in
Arabia, explaining the prevalence of place names in the region with Indian or Buddhist origin; e.g., "bahar" (from the Sanskrit"vihara", a Buddhist monastery). Ashokan emissary monks bring Buddhism to Suwannaphum, the location of which is disputed. The " Dipavamsa" and the Mon believe it was a Mon seafaring settlement in present-day Burma.
220 BCE: TheravadaBuddhism is officially introduced to Sri Lankaby the Venerable Mahinda, son of the emperor Ashokaof India during the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa.
185 BCE: Brahmingeneral Pusyamitra Sungaoverthrows the Mauryan dynastyand establishes the Sunga dynasty, apparently starting a wave of persecution against Buddhism.
180 BCE: Greco-BactrianKing Demetrius invades India as far as Pataliputraand establishes the Indo-Greekkingdom (180–10 BCE), under which Buddhism flourishes.
150 BCE: Indo-Greekking Menander Iconverts to Buddhismunder the sage Nāgasena, according to the account of the Milinda Panha.
120 BCE: The Chinese Emperor Han Wudi(156–87 BCE) receives two golden statues of the Buddha, according to inscriptions in the Mogao Caves, Dunhuang.
1st century BCE: The Indo-Greek governor Theodorus enshrines relics of the Buddha, dedicating them to the deified "Lord Shakyamuni."
29 BCE: According to the Sinhalese chronicles, the Pali Canonis written down in the reign of King IAST|Vaṭṭagamiṇi (29–17 BCE)
2 BCE: The Hou Hanshurecords the visit in 2 BCEof Yuezhienvoys to the Chinese capital, who give oral teachings on Buddhistsutras. [Baldev Kumar (1973). Exact source needed!]
65: Liu Ying's sponsorship of Buddhism is the first documented case of Buddhist practices in China.
*67: Buddhism comes to
Chinawith the two monks Motonand Chufarlan.
Buddhismis officially established in Chinawith the founding of the White Horse Temple.
Ban Chao, a Chinese General, subdues the Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan.
*78–101: According to
Mahayanatradition, the Fourth Buddhist counciltakes place under Kushana king Kanishka's reign, near Jalandar, India.
*116 CE: The Kushans, under
Kanishka, establish a kingdom centered on Kashgar, also taking control of Khotanand Yarkand—previously Chinese dependencies in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang.
An Shigao, a Parthian prince and Buddhist monk, arrives in China and proceeds to make the first translations of Theravadatexts into Chinese.
Kushanmonk Lokaksematravels to the Chinese capital of Loyangand becomes the first known translator of Mahayanatexts into Chinese.
*100s/200s: Indian and Central Asian Buddhists travel to Vietnam.
*200s: Use of Kharosthī script in
*200s & 300s: Kharosthī script is used in the southern
Silk Roadcities of Khotanand Niya.
296: The earliest surviving Chinese Buddhist scripture dates from this year ("Zhu Fo Yao Ji Jing", discovered in Dalian, late 2005).
*300s: Two Chinese monks take scriptures to the
Korean kingdom of Goguryeoand establish papermaking in Korea.
*320-467: The University at
Nalandagrows to support 3,000–10,000 monks.
Fa Xiantravels from China to India, then returns to translate Buddhist works into Chinese.
*400s: The kingdom of
Funan(centered in modern Cambodia) begins to advocate Buddhism in a departure from Hinduism. Earliest evidence of Buddhism in Myanmar(Pali inscriptions). Earliest evidence of Buddhism in Indonesian (statues). Earliest reinterpretations of Pali texts. The stupa at Dambulla( Sri Lanka) is constructed.
*402: At the request of
Yao Xing, Kumarajivatravels to Changanand translates many Buddhist texts into Chinese.
*403: In China,
Hui Yuanargues that Buddhist monks should be exempt from bowing to the emperor.
Yao Xinghonours Kumarajiva.
*425: Buddhism reaches
Buddhabhadrareaches China to preach Buddhism.
*495: The Shaolin temple is built in the name of Buddhabhadra, by edict of emperor Wei Xiao Wen. [ [http://www.easternmartialarts.com/kungfu_history.htm Kungfu History at EasternMartialArts.com] ] [cite journal | author = Canzonieri, Salvatore | year = 1998 | month = February–March | title = History of Chinese Martial Arts: Jin Dynasty to the Period of Disunity | journal = Han Wei Wushu | volume = 3 | issue = 9 | url = ]
*485: Five monks from
Gandharatravel to the country of Fusang( Japan, or possibly the American continent), where they introduce Buddhism.
Zenadherents enter Vietnamfrom China. Jatakastories are translated into Persian by order of the Zoroastrianking, Khosrau I of Persia.
Bodhidharmasettles into the Shaolin monastery in Henanprovince of China. [ [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0804834393&id=gHSAiZMhxhwC&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=bodhidharma+china+martial+arts&sig=pT-2FI5jLcnXlH3I9SkuWOzO4uw] The Art of Shaolin Kung Fu: The Secrets of Kung Fu for Self-Defense, Health and Enlightenmentby Grandmaster Wong Kiew Kit]
*552: Buddhism is introduced to
Japanvia Baekje( Korea), according to Nihonshoki; some scholars place this event in 538.
Jingwanbegins carving sutras onto stone at Fangshan, Yuzhou, 75 km southwest of modern-day Beijing.
Japanese imperial envoy is dispatched to Sui, Chinato obtain copies of sutras.
Xuan Zangtravels to India, noting the persecution of Buddhists by Sasanka(king of Gouda, a state in northwest Bengal) before returning to Chang Anin China to translate Buddhist scriptures. End of sporadic Buddhist rule in the Sindh. King Songtsen Gampoof Tibetsends messengers to India to get Buddhist texts. Latest recorded use of the Kharosthī script amongst Buddhist communities around Kucha.
*671: Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Yi Jing visits
Palembang, capital of the partly Buddhist kingdom of Srivijayaon the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, and reports over 1000 Buddhist monks in residence. Uisangreturns to Koreaafter studying Chinese HuayanBuddhism and founds the Hwaeomschool.
Huayanis transmitted to Japanvia Korea, when Rōbeninvites the Korean Hwaeommonk Simsangto lecture, and formally founds Japan's Kegontradition in the Tōdaijitemple.
*743–754: The Chinese monk
Jianzhenattempts to reach Japaneleven times, succeeding in 754 to establish the Japanese Ritsuschool, which specialises in the " vinaya" (monastic rules).
Jatakastories are translated in to Syriacand Arabic as Kalilag and Damnag. An account of Buddha's life is translated into Greek by John of Damascusand widely circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaamand Josaphat. By the 1300s, this story of Josaphatbecomes so popular that he is made a Catholicsaint.
*700s: Under the reign of King
Trisong Deutsen, Padmasambhavatravels from Afghanistan to establish tantric Buddhism in Tibet (later known as the Nyingmaschool of Tibetan Buddhism), replacing Bonpo as the kingdom's main religion. Buddhism quickly spreads to Sikkimand Bhutan.
*c. 760: Construction is begun on
Borobodur, the famous Indonesian Buddhist structure, probably as a non-Buddhist shrine. It is completed as a Buddhist monument in 830, after about 50 years of work.
*804: Under the reign of
Emperor Kammuof Japan, a fleet of four ships sets sail for mainland China. Of the two ships that arrive, one carries the monk Kūkai—recently ordained by the Japanese government as a Bhiksu—who absorbs Vajrayanateachings in Chang'anand returns to Japan to found the Japanese Shingonschool. The other ship carries the monk Saichō, who returns to Japan to found the Japanese Tendaischool, partly based upon the Chinese Tiantaitradition.
Ennin, a priest of the Tendaischool, travels in China for nine years. He reaches both the famous Buddhist mountain of Wutaishanand the Chinese capital, Chang'an, keeping a detailed diary that is a primary source for this period of Chinese history, including the Buddhist persecution.
Wuzongof the Tang Dynasty(given name: Li Yan) reigns in China; he is one of three Chinese emperors to prohibit Buddhism. From 843-845, Wuzong carries out the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution, permanently weakening the institutional structure of Buddhism in China.
*9th-century Tibet: Decline of Buddhism; persecution by King Langdarma.
*900s: Buddhist temple construction commences at
Bagan, Myanmar. In Tibet, a strong Buddhist revival is begun. The Caodongschool of Zenis founded by Dongshan Liangjie and his disciples in southern China.
Song Dynastycommissions Chengduwoodcarvers to carve the entire Buddhist canon for printing. Work is completed in 983; 130,000 blocks are produced, in total.
*991: A printed copy of the
Song DynastyBuddhist canon arrives in Korea, impressing the government.
Marpa, Konchog Gyalpo, Atisha, and others introduce the Sarmalineages into Tibet.
Vietnam's Ly Dynasty begins, which is partly brought about by an alliance with the Buddhist monkhood. Ly emperors patronize MahayanaBuddhism, in addition to traditional spirits.
Koreabegins carving its own woodblock print edition of the Buddhist canon. No completion date is known; the canon is continuously expanded, with the arrival of new texts from China.
*1017: In Southeast Asia, and especially in
Sri Lanka, the Bhikkhuni (Buddhist nuns) Order dies out due to invasions. The bhikkhu line in Sri Lankais later revived with bhikkhus from Burma.
Srivijaya, a Buddhist kingdom based in Sumatra, is raided by the Chola empire of southern India; it survives, but declines in importance. Shortly after the raid, the centre of the kingdom moves northward from Palembangto Jambi-Melayu.
Burma, Pagan's first king Anorathareigns. He converts the country to TheravadaBuddhism with the aid of monks and books from Sri Lanka. He is said to have been converted to TheravadaBuddhism by a Mon monk, though other beliefs persist.
Anawrahtaof Myanmarcaptures Thatonin northern Thailand, strengthening TheravadaBuddhism in the country.
*1063: A copy of the Khitans' printed canon arrives in
Koreafrom mainland China.
Myanmar, Pagan's second king, Kyanzittha(son of Anawrahta), reigns. He completes the building of the Shwezigonpagoda, a shrine for relics of the Buddha, including a tooth brought from Sri Lanka. Various inscriptions refer to him as an incarnation of Vishnu, a chakravartin, a bodhisattva, and dharmaraja.
*1100s: Sanskrit is subsequently written in
*1100–1125: Huizong reigns during the Chinese Song Dynasty and outlaws Buddhism to promote the Dao. He is one of three Chinese emperors to have prohibited Buddhism.
Alaungsithureigns in Pagan, Myanmaruntil his son Narathusmothers him to death and assumes the throne.
Hōnenestablishes Pure LandBuddhism as an independent sect in Japan.
*1181: The self-styled
bodhisattva Jayavarman VII, a devout follower of MahayanaBuddhism (though he also patronised Hinduism), assumes control of the Khmer kingdom. He constructs the Bayon, the most prominent Buddhist structure in the Angkortemple complex. This sets the stage for the later conversion of the Khmer people to TheravadaBuddhism.
Myanmar, Anawrahta's lineage regains control with the assistance of Sri Lanka. Pagan has been in anarchy. The new regime reforms Burmese Buddhism on Sri Lankan Theravadamodels.
*Late 1100s: The great Buddhist educational centre at
Nalanda, where various subjects were taught subjects such as Buddhism, Logic, Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Grammar, Yoga, Mathematics, Alchemy, and Astrology, is sacked. Nalanda is supported by kings of several dynasties and serves as a great international centre of learning.
Theravadaovertakes Mahayana—previously practised alongside Hinduism—as the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia; Sri Lankais an influence in this change. In Persia, the historian Rashid al-Dinrecords some eleven Buddhist texts circulating in Arabic translation, amongst which the Sukhavati-vyuha and Karanda-vyuha Sutras are recognizable. Portions of the Samyutta and Anguttara-Nikayas, along with parts of the Maitreya-vyakarana, are identified in this collection.
*1222: Birth of
Nichiren Daishonin(1222–1282), the Japanese founder of Nichiren Buddhism.
*c. 1238: The Thai Kingdom of Sukhothai is established, with
TheravadaBuddhism as the state religion.
Dogen Zenjitakes the Caodongschool of Zenfrom Chinato Japanas the Sotosect.
EiheijiSoto Zen Temple and Monastery are established by Dogen Zenji.
Burma's Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khanat the Battle of Ngasaunggyan, at Yunnan, near the Chinese border.
Arghunmakes the Il-Khanatea Buddhist state.
Theravadakingdom at Pagan, Myanmarfalls to the Mongolsand is overshadowed by the Shancapital at Ava.
*c. 1279–1298: Sukhothai's third and most famous ruler,
Ramkhamhaeng(Rama the Bold), reigns and makes vassals of Laos, much of modern Thailand, Pegu( Burma), and parts of the Malay Peninsula, thus giving rise to Sukhothai artistic tradition. After Ramkhamhaeng's death, Sukhothai loses control of its territories as its vassals become independent.
Mongolleader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders.
*1305–1316: Buddhists in Persia attempt to convert
SojijiSoto Zen Temple and Monastery established by Keizan Zenji.
Thailand, U Thong, possibly the son of a Chinese merchant family, establishes Ayutthaya as his capital and takes the name of Ramathibodi.
*1391–1474: Gyalwa Gendun Drubpa, first
Dalai Lamaof Tibet.
*1405–1431: The Chinese eunuch admiral
Zheng Hemakes seven voyages in this period, through southeast Asia, India, the Persian Gulf, East Africa, and Egypt. At the time, Buddhism is well-established in China, so visited peoples may have had exposure to Chinese Buddhism.
Altan Khanof the Tümedgives the title of Dalai Lamato Sonam Gyatso(later known as the third Dalai Lama).
*1600s & 1700s: When
Vietnamdivides during this period, the Nguyen rulers of the south choose to support MahayanaBuddhism as an integrative ideology for the ethnically plural society of their kingdom, which is also populated by Chams and other minorities.
Toyotomifamily rebuilds a great image of Buddha at the Temple of Hōkōji in Kyōtō.
*1615: The Oirat Mongols convert to the
Gelukschool of Tibetan Buddhism.
*1635: In Zanabazar, the first
Jebtsundamba Khutughtuis born as a great-grandson of Abadai Khanof the Khalkha.
Güüshi Khanof the Khoshuuddonates the sovereignty of Tibet to the fifth Dalai Lama.
Thailand, many Buddhist texts are destroyed as the Burmese invade Ayutthaya.
*1800s: In Thailand, King
Mongkut—himself a former monk—conducts a campaign to reform and modernise the monkhood, a movement that has continued in the present century under the inspiration of several great ascetic monks from the northeast part of the country.
Nguyen Anhcomes to the throne of the first united Vietnam; he succeeds by quelling the Tayson rebellionin south Vietnam with help from Rama Iin Bangkok, then takes over the north from the remaining Trinh. After coming to power, he creates a Confucianist orthodox state and is eager to limit the competing influence of Buddhism. He forbids adult men to attend Buddhist ceremonies.
Minh Mangreigns in Vietnam, further restricting Buddhism. He insists that all monks be assigned to cloisters and carry identification documents. He also places new restrictions on printed material and begins the persecution of Catholicmissionaries and converts that his successors (not without provocation) continue.
*c. 1860: In
Sri Lanka, against all expectations, the monastic and lay communities bring about a major revival in Buddhism, a movement that goes hand in hand with growing nationalism; the revival follows a period of persecution by foreign powers. Since then, Buddhism has flourished, and Sri Lankan monks and expatriate lay people have been prominent in spreading Theravada Buddhism in Asia, the West, and even in Africa.
*1879: A council is convened under the patronage of King
Mindon Minof Burma to re-edit the Pali canon. The king has the texts engraved on 729 stones, which are then set upright on the grounds of a monastery near Mandalay.
Jade Buddha Templeis founded in Shanghai, China, with two Jade Buddha statues imported from Burma.
World Parliament of Religionsmeets in Chicago, Illinois; Anagarika Dharmapalaand Soyen Shakuattend.
Fa Xian's records, Nepalesearchaeologists rediscover the great stone pillar of Ashokaat Lumbini.
Gordon Douglasis ordained in Myanmar; he is the first Westerner to be ordained in the Theravadatradition.
*1922: Zenshuji Soto Mission is founded as the first Soto Zen temple in North America.
Soka Gakkaiis founded in Japan.
Mahabodhi Templein Bodh Gayais returned to partial Buddhist control.
World Fellowship of Buddhistsis founded in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Sixth Buddhist Councilis held in Yangon, Myanmar, organized by U Nu. It ends in time for the 2500th anniversary of the passing of the Buddha.
*1956: Indian untouchable leader
B.R. Ambedkarconverts to Buddhism, with more than 350,000 followers—beginning the modern Neo-Buddhistmovement.
Zen Studies Societyis founded in New Yorkto support the work of D.T. Suzuki.
*1957: Caves near the summit of Pai-tai mountain,
Fangshandistrict, 75km southwest of Beijing, are reopened, revealing thousands of Buddhist sutras that had been carved onto stone since the 7th century. Seven sets of rubbings are made, and the stones are numbered, in work that continues until 1959.
*1959: Together with some 100,000 Tibetans, the 14th
Dalai Lamaflees the Chinese occupation of Tibetand establishes an exile community in India. The Chinese invaders completely destroy all but a handful of monasteries and severely persecute Buddhist practitioners.
San Francisco Zen Centeris founded by Shunryu Suzuki.
Thích Quảng Đứcimmolates himself to protest the oppression of the Buddhist religion by Ngo Dinh Diem.
*1965: The Burmese government arrests over 700 monks in
Hmawbi, near Rangoon, for refusing to accept government rule.
World Buddhist Sangha Councilis convened by Theravadins in Sri Lankawith the hope of bridging differences and working together. The first convention is attended by leading monks from many countries and sects, Mahayanaas well as Theravada. Nine " Basic Points Unifying the Theravada and Mahayana" are written by Ven. Walpola Rahulaare approved unanimously.
*1970s: Indonesian Archaeological Service and
*1973: The first
vajrayanaBuddhism centers are established in Europeby Lama Ole Nydahl.
Wat Pah Nanachat, the first monastery dedicated to providing training and support for western Buddhist monks, is founded in Thailandby Venerable Ajahn Chah. The monks trained here would later establish branch monasteries throughout the world.
*1974: The Naropa Institute (now
Naropa University) is founded in Boulder, Colorado.
Burma, during demonstrations at U Thant's funeral, 600 monks are arrested and several are bayoneted by government forces.
Lao Communistrulers attempt to change attitudes to religion—in particular, calling on monks to work, not beg. This causes many to return to lay life, but Buddhism remains popular.
Insight Meditation Societyis established in Barre, Massachusetts.
*1975–79: Cambodian communists under
Pol Pottry to completely destroy Buddhism, and very nearly succeed. By the time of the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1978, nearly every monk and religious intellectual has been either murdered or driven into exile, and nearly every temple and Buddhist library has been destroyed.
*1976: Following a demonstration in
Burma, the government seeks to discredit the critical monk La Baby claiming that he is a cannibal and a murderer.
*1978: In Burma, more monks and novices are arrested, disrobed, and imprisoned by the government. Monasteries are closed and property seized. The critical monk
U Nayakais arrested and dies, the government claiming it is suicide.
*1980: The Burmese military government asserts authority over the
sangha, and violence against monks continues through the decade.
Shanghai Institute of Buddhismis established at Jade Buddha Temple, under the Shanghai Buddhist Association.
*1988: During the 1988 uprising,
SPDCtroops gun down monks. After the uprising, U Nyanissara, a senior monk, records a tape that discusses democracy in Buddhist precepts; the tape is banned.
August 27: Over 7000 monks meet in Mandalay, in Burma, to call for a boycott of the military. They refuse to accept alms from military families or perform services for them. The military government seizes monasteries and arrests hundreds of monks, including senior monks U Sumangalaand U Yewata. The monks face long-term imprisonment, and all boycotting monks are disrobed; some monks are tortured during interrogation.
*1992: The Buddha Statue in Hyderabad,
Indiais installed, a work of former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Late Sri N.T. Rama Rao. The 16-meter tall, 350-ton monolithic colossus rises high from the placid waters of picturesque Husain SagarLake. It is made of white granite, finely sculptured and stands majestically amidst the shimmering waters of the lake. It is later consecrated by Dalai Lama.
India: The Bhikkhuni (Buddhist nuns) Order and lineage is revived in Sarnath, Indiathrough the efforts of Sakyadhita, an International Buddhist Women Association. The revival is done with some resistance from some of the more literal interpreters of the Buddhist Vinaya (monastic code) and lauded by others in the community.
January 25: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam ( LTTE) terrorists commit a deadly suicide attack on Sri Lanka's most sacred Buddhist site and a UNESCOWorld Heritage centre: the Temple of the Tooth, where Buddha's tooth relic is enshrined. Eight civilians are killed and 25 others are injured and significant damage is done to the temple structure, which was first constructed in 1592 AD.
*2001, May: Two of the world's tallest ancient Buddha statues, the
Buddhas of Bamyan, are completely destroyed by the Talibanin Bamyan, Afghanistan.
*2004, April: In
Sri Lanka, Buddhist monks acting as candidates for the Jaathika Hela Urumayaparty win nine seats in elections.
*2006, November: In the
United States, two Buddhists are elected for the first time to the 110th Congress.
*2007 (September) Thousands of Burmese Buddhist monks and nuns protest against the military regime; the military regime responds with a bloody crackdown. Thousands are arrested, and hundreds flee to Thailand and India; the death toll is in the hundreds.
October 17: The U.S. Congress presents the 14th Dalai Lamawith the U.S. Congressional Gold Medal and meets in public with President George W. Bush.
* 2008 (March): Tibetan monks protest in Lhasa, and many Tibetans join in calling for the end of Chinese rule. Many Chinese businesses are attacked and burned. The Chinese respond by sending in troops and ordering a strict lockdown of the capital city of Lhasa. Many Tibetans are killed, with the death toll maybe over a hundred. Outraged, thousands of exiled Tibetans around the world protest.
History of Buddhism
History of Hinduism
Timeline of Jainism
Timeline of Zen Buddhism in the United States
* [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/history.html Theravada Buddhist Chronology]
*Asakawa, K and Lodge, Henry Cabot (Ed.). "Japan From the Japanese Government History". (In Progress at
* [http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/history/s_scripts.htm Buddhist Bark Texts Found] , BuddhaNet.
* [http://www.buddhism.kalachakranet.org/time_line.html A Buddhist Time-line]
* [http://ishi.lib.berkeley.edu/buddhist/bbrc/fang_shan_canon.html Rock cut canon in China]
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