- V10 engine
A V10 engine is a
V enginewith 10 cylinders in two banks of five.
The V10 configuration is not an inherently balanced design like a straight-6 or V12. It can be balanced with crankshaft counterweights as an odd firing 90 degree V engine (BMW M5, Dodge Viper). It can be balanced with a balance shaft as an even firing 72 degree engine, or with a split crankshaft journal 90 degree V angle (Lamborghini Gallardo, Ford 6.8 V10).
Until recently V10s had rarely been a popular configuration for road cars: a
V12is only slightly more complicated and runs more smoothly and a V8is less complex and more economical. Nevertheless, modern engineering has made it possible to use V-10 engines for applications where a V-8 would produce insufficient power and a V-12 would be too complicated or bulky. Dodgewas the first to develop a modern V-10 engine, originally designing a version of its LA series small block for use in trucks. However, the engine saw its first production use in substantially revised form in the Dodge Viper. The original truck version of the engine was eventually used starting in 1994 in the Dodge Ram. It discontinued in that application after 2003. However, 2003 also saw the introduction of the Ram SRT-10, a performance model meant to rival Ford's successful F-150 SVT Lightning. The Viper engine (a 90-degree engine with odd firing order to obviate the need for a balance shaft) has been tweaked through the years, and now produces 600 horsepower (447 kW) in a standard state of tune from its 8.4 liter displacement. The engine is also used by Bristol, in tuned form, in their two-seat Fighter coupe, where it can produce upward of 630 horsepower (470 kW).
Ford also developed a heavy-duty V-10 version of their Triton engine to replace the aging 460 big block in truck applications. It was introduced in the E-Series/Econoline full-size
van, and also saw duty in the F-Series Super Duty line and the Ford ExcursionSUV, and is still in production in 2008.
European marques were slower to adopt the V-10 configuration. However, high-revving V-10 powerplants were incorporated into supercars from
Lamborghiniand Porsche. BMWand Audilater unveiled ten-cylinder versions of their mid-range sedans (the 5-Series and A6 families, respectively). Interestingly, Volkswagen developed a ten-cylinder engine as well, but as a turbodiesel.
A list of post-war V-10-engined production cars (sorted alphabetically by manufacturer, sub-sorted by year of introduction):
* Bristol Fighter
Connaught Type-D(entering production in 2007)
* Dodge Viper SRT-10 (the first modern V-10-engined car)
* Dodge Ram 2500/3500 Heavy Duty (pickup trucks)
* Dodge Ram SRT-10 (pickup truck)
* Ford E-350 (full-size van)
* Ford F-250/F-350 Super Duty (pickup trucks)
Ford Excursion(sport-utility vehicle)
Porsche Carrera GT
Volkswagen Touareg(a turbodiesel)
Volkswagen Phaeton(a turbodiesel)
The most widespread use of the V10 has been in
Formula 1racing. Alfa Romeo made the first modern [ [http://www.racecar-engineering.com/allarticles/273555/inside-an-f1-engine.html] Formula One V10] in 1986; although it was never used in Formula One car.Cite web|url=http://velocetoday.com/cars/cars_134.php|title=164 Pro-Car|accessdate=2007-12-28|work=velocetoday.com] Later the configuration was introduced by Honda and Renault before the 1989 season. The introduction of the 3 litre rule made the V10 seem the best compromise between the V8 and the V12. Renault had a more flat 110° angle motor in 2002 and 2003, but reverted to a more conventional layout (a 72° angle) following the change in rules which dictated that an engine must last two race weekends. In a further change to the rules, V10s were banned for the 2006 season in favour of 2.4 litre V8s.
There are also cars with V10 engines in
sports car racing, usually with Judd powerplants with 4 or 5 litre engines, made available for customers, although the first V10 was seen in the works Peugeot 905, in the final races of the 1990 World Sportscar Championship.
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