Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Infobox SSR
name = Kazakh SSR
rus-name = Казахская Советская Социалистическая Республика
loc-name = Қазақ Кеңестік Социалистік Республикасы
full-name = Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
year_start = 1936
year_end = 1991
p1 = Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
flag_p1 = Flag of Russian SFSR.svg
s1 = Kazakhstan
flag_s1 = Flag of Kazakhstan.svg

arms = Coat of arms of Kazakh SSR.png

capital = Alma-Ata (today Almaty)
language = None (Kazakh and Russian)
Lang-ISO = kk
established = August 26, 1920
ussr-start = December 30, 1922
ussr-end = December 16, 1991
area-rank = 2nd
area = 2,717,300
water = 1.7%
pop-rank = 4th
pop = 16,711,900
density = 6.1
time-zone = + 4 to + 6
anthem = Anthem of Kazakh SSR
medals =

The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic ( _kk. Қазақ Кеңестік Социалистік Республикасы "Qazaq Keñestik Socialistik Respublikasi"; _ru. Казахская Советская Социалистическая Республика "Kazakhskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika"), also known as the Kazakh SSR for short, was one of republics that made up the Soviet Union. At 2,717,300 square kilometres (1,063,200 square miles) in area, it was the second largest constituent republic in the USSR, after the Russian SFSR. Its capital was Alma-Ata (today known as Almaty). Today it is the independent state of Kazakhstan in Central Asia.

The country is named after the Kazakh people, Turkic-speaking former nomads who sustained a powerful khanate in the region before Russian and then Soviet domination. The Soviet Union's spaceport, now known as the Baikonur Cosmodrome was located in this republic at Tyuratam, and the secret town of Leninsk was constructed to accommodate its personnel.


Established on August 26, 1920, it was initially called Kirghiz ASSR (Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) and was a part of the Russian SFSR. On April 15-19, 1925, it was renamed Kazakh ASSR and on December 5, 1936 it became a Union Republic of the USSR called "Kazakh SSR" in the culminating act of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union. In the 1930s, Kazakh SSR did not escape the damage of the Stalinist repressions and forced collectivization that killed large numbers of peasants by famine. [ [http://rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/12/c58914de-953d-4dec-ab7c-16d7d9fb9a00.html Kazakhstan: The Forgotten Famine] , "Radio Free Europe", December 28, 2007] The Russian policymakers had an intent to weaken the sense of Kazakh national identity and solidify the Soviet doctrine, and routinely targeted prominent members of Kazakh culture. Thousands of members of Kazakh elite ("intelligentscia") have been deemed "unacceptably nationalistic or un-soviet" and were massacred, incarcerated or sent to prison mines in Siberia. The total number of Kazakh SSR victims of Stalinist Repressions during this period is estimated at least 100 000, with 25 000 of them classified as "executed". During the 1950s and 1960s Soviet citizens were urged to settle in the "Virgin Lands" of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. The influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some forcibly resettled ethnic minorities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. As a result, the use of Kazakh language has declined but has started to pick up again after the independence, both as a result of its resurging popularity in law and business and growing proportion of Kazakhs since the Independence. The other nationalities included Ukrainians, Germans, Jews, Belarusians, Koreans and others; Germans at the time of independence formed about 8% of the population, the largest concentration of Germans in the entire Soviet Union. Independence has caused many of these newcomers to emigrate.On December 10, 1991 "Kazakh SSR" was renamed into "Republic of Kazakhstan" and six days later became independent.


According to the 1897 census, the earliest census taken in the region, Kazakhs constituted 81.7% of the total population (3,392,751 people)within the territory of contemporary Kazakhstan. The Russian population in Kazakhstan was 454,402, or 10.95% of total population; there were 79,573 Ukrainians (1.91%); 55,984 Tatars (1.34%); 55,815 Uyghurs (1.34%); 29,564 Uzbeks (0.7%); 11,911 Mordovans (0.28%); 4,888 Dungan (0.11%); 2,883 Turkmen; 2,613 Germans; 2,528 Bashkir; 1,651 Jews; and 1,254 Poles.
Table: Ethnic Composition of Kazakhstan (census data) [www.ohchr.org/english/issues/minorities/docs/WP5.doc]


External links

* [http://www.archive.org/details/KazakhstanSevenYearPlanForProsperity "Kazakhstan: Seven Year Plan for Prosperity"] by Dinmukhamed Konayev

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