Henry Campbell-Bannerman


Henry Campbell-Bannerman

Infobox Prime Minister
honorific-prefix = The Right Honourable
name = Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
honorific-suffix =
PC GCB


order =Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
term_start =5 December 1905
term_end =3 April 1908
monarch =Edward VII
predecessor =Arthur Balfour
successor =Herbert Henry Asquith
birth_date =7 September 1836
birth_place =Kelvinside, Glasgow, United Kingdom
death_date =death date and age|1908|4|22|1836|9|7|df=y
death_place =10 Downing Street, Whitehall, London, United Kingdom
party =Liberal
alma_mater =University of Glasgow
Trinity College, Cambridge, United Kingdom
profession =Merchant
spouse =Charlotte Campbell-Bannerman
religion =Presbyterian

Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, GCB (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from 5 December 1905 until resigning due to ill health on 3 April 1908. No previous First Lord of the Treasury had been officially called "Prime Minister"; this term only came into official usage 5 days after he took office.

Life

Campbell-Bannerman was born at Kelvinside House in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1836 as Henry Campbell. The surname "Bannerman" was added to his surname in 1871 as required by his maternal uncle's will. It was a condition of his inheritance of his uncle's Kent estate, Hunton Court.

He was the second son and youngest of six children born to Sir James Campbell (1790-1876), who was Lord Provost of Glasgow 1840-1843, and his wife Janet Bannerman (d. 1873). Campbell-Bannerman was educated at the High School of Glasgow (1845-1847), the University of Glasgow (1851), and Trinity College, Cambridge (1854-1858), where he achieved a Third-Class Degree in Classical Tripos. After graduating, he joined J.& W. Campbell & Co., his family's firm, who were warehousemen and drapers in Glasgow.

In 1868 he was elected to the House of Commons as Liberal Member of Parliament for Stirling Burghs — a constituency he was to represent for forty years.

He was appointed as Financial Secretary to the War Office in November 1871, serving in this position until 1874, and again from 1880 to 1882. After serving as Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty from 1882 to 1884, he entered Gladstone's second cabinet as Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1884.

In Gladstone's Third (1886) and Fourth (1892-1894) Cabinets and Rosebery's Government (1894-1895) he served as Secretary of State for War, where he persuaded the Duke of Cambridge, the Queen's cousin, to resign as Commander-in-Chief. This earned Campbell-Bannerman a knighthood. In 1898 Sir Henry succeeded Sir William Vernon Harcourt as leader of the Liberals in the House of Commons. Campbell-Bannerman had a difficult time in holding together the strongly divided party, which was defeated in the "khaki election" of 1900. The Liberals returned to power in December 1905, however, and he became Prime Minister,leading the Liberals to a great victory in the election of 1906.Campbell-Bannerman's premiership saw the introduction of the so-called Liberal reforms, which included the introduction of sick pay and old age pensions, as well as the achievement of an Entente with Russia in 1907, brought about principally by the Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey. In that same year, Campbell-Bannerman achieved the honour of becoming the Father of the House, the only serving British Prime Minister to do so to date. Nevertheless his health soon took a turn for the worse, and he resigned as Prime Minister on 3 April 1908, to be succeeded by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Herbert Henry Asquith. Campbell-Bannerman remained in residence at 10 Downing Street in the immediate aftermath of his resignation, and became the only (former) Prime Minister to die there, on 22 April 1908.

His last words were "This is not the end of me." [cite web |url=http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page141.asp |title=Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman at 10 Downing Street |accessdate=2007-01-31] Campbell-Bannerman was buried in the churchyard of Meigle Parish Church, Perthshire, near his home, Belmont Castle. A relatively modest stone plaque set in the exterior wall of the church serves as a memorial.

In an uncharacteristically emotional speech on the day of Campbell-Bannerman's funeral, his successor H. H. Asquith told the House of Commons: "He was not ashamed, even on the verge of old age, to see visions and to dream dreams... He met both good and evil fortune with the same unclouded brow, the same unruffled temper, the same unshakeable confidence in the justice and righteousness of his cause."

Another of Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet Ministers — who was also later to serve as Prime Minister (and, years after his premiership, as Father of the House as well) — David Lloyd George, said of his passing, "I have never met a great public figure who so completely won the attachment and affection of the men who came into contact with him. He was not merely admired and respected; he was absolutely loved by us all. The masses of the people of the country, especially the more unfortunate of them, have lost the best friend they have ever had in the high place of the land. ... He was a truly great man. A great head and a great heart. He was absolutely the bravest man I ever met in politics."

There is a blue plaque outside Campbell-Bannerman's house at 6 Grosvenor Place, London SW1. His bronze bust, sculpted by Paul Raphael Montford is in Westminster Abbey (1908) [cite web|url=http://www.web-mouse.co.uk/remembrance/additionalinfo/britishwarmemorials/hf-ai-bwm-montford.htm |title= British war memorials · paul montford |accessdate=2007-01-31] .

Campbell-Bannerman's Government

*Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman — Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Commons
*Lord Loreburn — Lord Chancellor
*Lord Crewe — Lord President of the Council
*Lord Ripon — Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords
*H. H. Asquith - Chancellor of the Exchequer
*Herbert Gladstone — Secretary of State for the Home Department
*Sir Edward Grey — Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
*Lord Elgin — Secretary of State for the Colonies
*Richard Haldane — Secretary of State for War
*John Morley - Secretary of State for India
*Lord Tweedmouth — First Lord of the Admiralty
*David Lloyd George - President of the Board of Trade
*Sir Henry Fowler — Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
*Sir John Sinclair — Secretary for Scotland
*James Bryce — Chief Secretary for Ireland
*John Burns - President of the Local Government Board
*Lord Carrington — President of the Board of Agriculture
*Augustine Birrell — President of the Board of Education
*Sydney Buxton — Postmaster-General

Changes

*January 1907 — Augustine Birrell succeeds Bryce as Irish Secretary. Reginald McKenna succeeds Birrell at the Board of Education.
*March 1907 — Lewis Harcourt, the First Commissioner of Public Works, enters the Cabinet.

Political offices

-

References

Further reading

* "‘Maistly Scotch’ Campbell-Bannerman and Liberal Leadership" by Ewen A Cameron, Journal of Liberal History, Issue 54, Spring 2007
* "Campbell-Bannerman" (British Prime Ministers of the 20th century series) by Roy Hattersley, Haus publishing 2006
* "C. B.: Life of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman" by John Wilson, Constable & St Martin's Press, 1973
* Biography of Campbell-Bannerman by Tony Greaves in 'Dictionary of Liberal Biography', Politico's, 1998
* "The Life of the Right Hon Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman GCB" by J A Spender, Hodder & Stoughton, 1923

External links

* [http://www.liberalhistory.org.uk/item_single.php?item_id=4&item=biography Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman] biography from the Liberal Democrat History Group
* [http://pm.gov.uk/output/Page141.asp More about Henry Campbell-Bannerman] on the Downing Street website.


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  • Henry Campbell-Bannerman — Henri Campbell Bannerman Mandats 51e Premier ministre du Royaume Uni …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Henry Campbell-Bannerman — Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman (* 7. September 1836 in Glasgow; † 22. April 1908 in London) war ein britischer liberaler Politiker und Premierminister vom 5. Februar 1906 bis zum 3. April 1908. Campbell Bannerman wurde… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Campbell-Bannerman — Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman (* 7. September 1836 in Glasgow; † 22. April 1908 in London) war ein britischer liberaler Politiker und Premierminister vom 5. Februar 1906 bis zum 3. April 1908. Campbell Bannerman wurde… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry — orig. Henry Campbell born Sept. 7, 1836, Glasgow, Scot. died April 22, 1908, London, Eng. British politician. A member of the House of Commons from 1868, he was elected leader of the Liberal Party in 1899 and served as prime minister (1905–08).… …   Universalium

  • Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry — (1836–1908)    British prime minister remembered as a staunch radical and consistent opponent of imperial expansion. His government of 1905–1908 nevertheless began an informal alliance with France that led into World War I.    Campbell Bannerman… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Campbell-Bannerman —   [ kæmbl bænəmən], Sir Henry, britischer Politiker, * Glasgow 7. 9. 1836, ✝ London 22. 4. 1908; war 1886 und 1892 95 Kriegsminister und seit 1899 Führer der liberalen Partei. Er wandte sich scharf gegen den Burenkrieg und dessen »barbarischen«… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Campbell-Bannerman — (spr. kämmbel ), Sir Henry, engl. Staatsmann, geb. 1836 zu Kelvinside in Schottland, studierte, wurde 1868 ins Unterhaus gewählt und schloß sich der liberalen Partei an. C. war Finanzsekretär im Kriegsministerium 1871–74 und 1880–1882, Sekretär… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Campbell-Bannerman — (spr. kämmbl bännermänn), Sir Henry, engl. Staatsmann, geb. 7. Sept. 1836 in Kelvinside (Schottland), 1868 Mitglied des Unterhauses, 1884 85 Obersekretär für Irland, 1886 und 1892 95 Kriegsminister. 1899 Führer der Liberalen Partei im Unterhause …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Campbell Bannerman — Campbell Bannerman, sir Henry …   Enciclopedia Universal


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