Indian Removal Act


Indian Removal Act

The Indian Removal Act, part of a United States government policy known as Indian removal, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 26, 1830.The U.S. Senate passed the bill on 24 April 1830 (28-19), the U.S. House passed it on 26 May 1830 (102-97); Francis Paul Prucha, "The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians", Volume I (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), p. 206.]

The Removal Act was strongly supported in the South, where states were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the "Five Civilized Tribes". In particular, Georgia, the largest state at that time, was involved in a contentious jurisdictional dispute with the Cherokee nation. President Jackson hoped removal would resolve the Georgia crisis. The Indian Removal Act was also very controversial. While Indian removal was, in theory, supposed to be voluntary, in practice great pressure was put on American Indian leaders to sign removal treaties. Most observers, whether they were in favor of the Indian removal policy or not, realized that the passage of the act meant the inevitable removal of most Indians from the states. Some Native American leaders who had previously resisted removal now began to reconsider their positions, especially after Jackson's landslide reelection in 1832.

Most white Americans favored the passage of the Indian Removal Act, though there was significant opposition. Many Christian missionaries, most notably missionary organizer Jeremiah Evarts, agitated against passage of the Act. In Congress, New Jersey Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen and Congressman David Crockett of Tennessee spoke out against the legislation. The Removal Act was passed after bitter debate in Congress.

The Removal Act paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West. The first removal treaty signed after the Removal Act was the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek on September 27, 1830, in which Choctaws in Mississippi ceded land east of the river in exchange for payment and land in the West. The Treaty of New Echota (signed in 1835) resulted in the removal of the Cherokee on the Trail of Tears.

In 1823 the Supreme Court handed down a decision ("Johnson v. M'Intosh") which stated that Indians could occupy lands within the United States, but could not hold title to those lands. [ [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html Indian removal ] ]

ee also

*"Cherokee Nation v. Georgia"
*"Worcester v. Georgia"
*Treaty of New Echota
*Five Civilized Tribes
*Cherokee Indians
*Creek Indians
*Indian removal
*List of Choctaw Treaties

References

External links

* [http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Indian.html Indian Removal Act and related resources] , at the Library of Congress"
* [http://www.civics-online.org/library/formatted/texts/indian_act.html Indian Removal Act of 1830 Transcript] , at www.civics-online.org
* [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29471 Text of 1829 State of the Union] at The American Presidency Project


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Indian Removal Act — Der Indian Removal Act (englisch: Indianer Umsiedlungsgesetz oder Indianer Ausweisungs Gesetz) wurde 1830 in den USA erlassen, um eine gesetzliche Grundlage für die Indianer Ausweisung (Indian Removal) aus den Bundesstaaten östlich des… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Indian Removal Act — Se ha sugerido que este artículo o sección sea fusionado con Remoción India (discusión). Una vez que hayas realizado la fusión de artículos, pide la fusión de historiales aquí. El Indian Removal Act (o Acta de Remoción de los Indios) de 1830 fue… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Indian Removal Act — L’Indian Removal Act (littéralement Acte de déplacement des Indiens) est une loi des États Unis datant du 26 mai 1830, proposée par Andrew Jackson, et ordonnant la déportation des Amérindiens vivant dans les territoires compris entre les treize… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Indian Removal Act — (May 28, 1830) First major legislation that reversed the U.S. policy of respecting the rights of American Indians. The act granted tribes unsettled western prairie land in exchange for their territories within state borders, mainly in the… …   Universalium

  • Indian Removal Act — law signed in 1830 that called for the resettlement of American Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River (U.S. History) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Indian Appropriations Act — The Indian Appropriations Act is the name of several acts passed by the United States Congress.1851 ActIn the 1850s, the US government had agreed upon assimilation and removal as the solution to the taking over of Native American lands by white… …   Wikipedia

  • Indian removal — The term Indian in this article refers to Native Americans; not to be confused with South Asians from the Indian subcontinent Routes of southern removals. Indian removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to… …   Wikipedia

  • Indian Forest Act, 1927 — The Indian Forest Act, 1927 was largely based on previous Indian Forest Acts implemented under the British. The first and most famous was the Indian Forest Act of 1878. Both the 1878 act and the 1927 one sought to consolidate and reserve the… …   Wikipedia

  • Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act — The Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936, also known as the Thomas Rogers Act, is a United States federal law that extended the US Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. It sought to return some form of tribal government to the many tribes in former… …   Wikipedia

  • Andrew Jackson: On Indian Removal — ▪ Primary Source              Westward expansion brought the United States into contact with numerous Indian tribes, and the admission of new states brought certain Indian lands within the national boundaries. In the following message to Congress …   Universalium